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PA 8I3.N97"" """'"»">' "*""^ 



The elements of New Testament Greek ;a 




3 1924 021 607 191 



THE ELEMENTS 

OF 

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek 

Cambridge University Press, 2/6 net 



THE ELEMENTS 

OF 

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK 



A METHOD OF STUDYING THE GREEK 
NEW TESTAMENT WITH EXERCISES 



by 
Rev. H. P. V. NUNN, M.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge, sometime Lecturer at 
St Aidan's College, Birkenhead 



Cambridge : 

at the University Press ' 
1914 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
IlDnlron: FETTEE LANE, E.G. 
C. F. CLAY, Manager 




(EDinliutflf): 100, PRINCES STREET 

Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 

S-eipjia: F. A. BROCKHAUS 

iJefaaotfi: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

Botnfiaa an* aralratta: MACMILLAN AND CO.. Ltd. 

STotonto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd. 

JCofcao: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



PREFACE 

THIS book is intended principally for those who wish to 
take up the study of Greek after they have left school 
with a view to reading the Greek New Testament. It is 
concerned only with such words and forms as are found in 
New Testament Greek. The words used in the exercises 
are those which occur frequently in the Gospels and the Acts 
of the Apostles : they are collected in vocabularies at the 
end of the book, and it is believed that, if these vocabularies 
are carefully committed to memory, the student will find 
himself supplied with such words as are necessary to enable 
him to read these portions of the New Testament with ease 
and rapidity. 

The author attaches great importance to the accurate 
knowledge of the meanings of the most common words as an 
aid to the thorough and rapid acquirement of a language. 
Fortunately the words used in the Gospels and in the Acts 
are comparatively few, and this fact together with the 
simplicity of their style makes these books in many respects 
very suitable first reading books even for those who do not 
intend to limit their study of the Greek language to the 
New Testament. 

The most common irregular verbs are gradually introduced 
into the exercises and are also collected in a table at the end 
of the book. The sentences in the later exercises are taken 
almost verbatim from the Greek Testament. The verbs in 
/it are not introduced until the end of the book and the 



VI PREFACE 

author therefore recommends that the Greek Testament 
itself should not be studied until these verbs have been 
mastered and all the Greek into English exercises in the 
book have been written out. Those who wish to become 
proficient in the subject should also write out all the English^ 
into Greek exercises. 

In no studj' is the saying of Bacon that writing maketh 
an exact man so thoroughly exemplified as in the study of 
languages. 

The order in which the forms and constructions treated 
in the exercises are placed is determined by the principle 
that those are treated first which occur most frequently. 

Syntax is only treated so far as to enable examples to be 
given of the use of the Subjunctive and Infinitive moods and 
of the Participle. The author ventures to refer those who 
desire further information on this subject to his Short 
Syntax of New Testament Greek published by the Cambridge 
University Press, to which reference is occasionally made in 
footnotes in this book. 

The Introduction to that book on the subject of English 
Grammar is reprinted here as an Appendix. Although it is 
printed at the end of the book, the author would urge that 
it should be studied at the beginning by those to whom its 
contents are partially unfamiliar. 

It is hoped that a student who has been carefully through 
this book will be able to read the easier portions of the New 
Testament with the aid of a dictionary. As however the 
subject-matter of the New Testament is already so familiar 
to most people in an English translation, such a power does 
not really imply much knowledge of Greek. Those who* 
wish to gain an intelligent knowledge of the language should 



PEEFACE Vll 

study some easy Greek author whose meaning is not already 
familiar to them. Such may be found in any of the 
many elementary editions of Xenophon or Lucian which are 
published^ or even in Plato's Apology of Socrates studied 
with or without the help of a translation. The latter book 
is so interesting and important in its contents and so perfect 
and yet so simple in its style that it should be studied in 
the original language by all those who have 'the opportunity. 
Translations of Lucian and of Plato's Apology are published 
in a convenient form by the Oxford University Press. 

If these books are thought to be too difficult the writings 
of the Apostolic Fathers, especially the Epistle of St Clement 
and the Shepherd of Hermas, may be recommended. These 
latter books are however not published in a form adapted for 
beginners, and the author has therefore attempted to meet 
this need by publishing selections from them and from other 
Christian authors of the first two centuries with notes at the 
end of the " Syntax " referred to above. 

In conclusion he wishes to record his obligation to 
Messrs Bradley and Horswell for their "New Testament 
Word Lists," which were of great service in preparing the 
exercises in this book, and to his father for the care with 
which he looked over the proofs. 

H. P. V. NUNN. 



175 Stockport Road, 
Manchester. 

November 6, 1913. 

' See the "Elementary Classics" series published by Macmillan. 



CONTENTS 

■TjESSON • • PAGE 

I The Alphabet 1 

II ' Breathihgs, accents, iota subscript ... 5 

III The Present Indicative Active .... 7 

IV The Present Indicative of contracted verbs in f m . 9 

V Nouns of the Second Declension ending in os . . 10 

VI The Genitive and Dative cases, the Definite Article 13 

VII Neuter Nouns of the Second Declension ... 14 
VIII Feminine Nouns of the First Declension . 16 

IX Masculine Nouns of the First Declension, etc. 17 
X Adjectives of the Second Declension, Present Tense 

of "To be" 19 

XI The Imperfect Indicative Active, Accentuation of 

verbs . . 21 

XII Imperfect of the verb "To be," Demonstrative Pro- 

noims, airos 25 

XIII The Present and Imperfect Indicative Passive . 27 

XIV Deponent Verbs, the Present Imperative, the Relative 

Pronoun . ... . . 31 

XV The Present Infinitive, Personal and Possessive Pro- 

nouns 35 

XVI The Future Indicative Active and Middle, the 

Middle Voice . ...... 40 

XVII Twostemsof verbs, the Reflexive Pronoun, questions 43 
XVIII The First Aorist Active 47 

XIX The Second Aorist Active, Object clauses after verbs 

of saying or thinking. . . . . 51 

XX The Future and Aorist Active of liquid verbs, 

Temporal clauses 55 



X 



CONTENTS 



LESSON PAOB 

XXI The Third Declension 58 

XXII Nouns with stems ending in a vowel, Neuter Nouns 

of the Third Declension 62 

XXIII Adjectives of the Third Declension, Irregular 

Adjectives 65 

XXrV The First and Second Aorist Passive, the Future 

Passive 68 

XXV Participles 72 

XXVI The Genitive Absolute, Interrogative and Indefinite 

Pronouns, certain Prepositions . . . . 77 
XXVII The First and Second Aorist Middle, the comparison 

of Adjectives, Adverbs 82 

XXVIII Contracted Verbs ending in aa> and oa . . . 87 

XXIX The Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses .... 91 

XXX The Subjunctive Mood 95 

XXXI Subjunctive of Contracted Verbs and of elfu, further 

uses of the Subjunctive 99 

XXXII Further uses of the Infinitive 102 

XXXIII The Verbs in fu : diSa/u 106 

XXXIV 7-Mij/tt 110 

XXXV twniiu 112 

XXXVI Other Verbs in ^i .116 

XXXVII The Optative Mood, Periphrastic Tenses . . . 119 

Vocabularies 122 

The Regular Verb 142 

Table of Principal Parts of Verbs .... 149 

Appendix I. Prepositions 164 

„ II. Conditional Sentences . . . 161 

„ III. Accentuation 164 

„ IV. English Grammar .... 168 

English-Greek Vocabulary ... . igg^ 

Greek Index . . 200 



LESSON I 

THE ALPHABET 

The Greek Alphabet consists of 24 letters, a good many of which 
are identical with the corresponding letters of the Latin alphabet 
which we still employ. Both alphabets were derived from the Phoe- 
nician alphabet, from which the Hebrew alphabet also took its origin. 

The letters given in the second column are now used only as capital 
letters in printed Greek books ; but originally letters like these were 
used in all Greek writing. They are generally called Uncial letters, 
and all the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament are called 
Uncial Manuscripts, because they are written throughout in these 
letters. 

About the 9th century a.d. another style of writing more resembling 
the letters in the second column came into general use. These were 
called Cursive or running letters, because they could be written without 
raising the pen from the paper, like our modern handwriting. 

This type of writing has remained in use ever since, both in 
manuscripts and printed books, with certain modifications. 

The student should learn the list of the names of the letters down 
the column thoroughly in order that he may be able to find the words 
in his Dictionary as quickly as possible. 

He should make sure of the letters both by reading aloud and by 
writing, as much time will afterwards be saved if he is able to read 
accurately and quickly, and to grasp the sound of a word as soon as 
he sees it written. It will be noticed that there are two letters to 
represent the English letter " e," and two to represent the letter " o." 

One of these represents the short sound of the letter, and the other 
the long sound. The mark - written over a letter denotes that it is 
to be pronounced long, and the mark - that it is to be pronounced 
short. This distinction in the length of the sound denoted by the 
letters must be carefully observed in pronunciation. 

1 



2 




THE ALPHABET 




Name of the 


Capital 


Small 


English 




letter 


letters 


letters 


equivalent 


Pronunciation 


Alpha 


A 


a 


a 


When long like a 
in "lathe," when 
short like a in 
"cat." 


Beta 


B 


^ 


b 


Like English 6. 


G^mma 


r 


y 


g 


Always hard like g 
iu"get." 


Delta 


A 


8 


d 


Like English d. 


Epsflon 


E 


e 


S 


Like e in " met." 


Zeta 


z 


c 


z 


Like Knglish z or cfe< 


Eta 


H 


n 


e 


Like ee in " meet." 


Theta 


e 


e 


th 


Like th in " thin." 


Iota 


I 


I 


i 


Like i in "this" 
when short, when 
long like i in 
" crime." 


Kappa 


K 


K 


k 


Like English k. 


Lambda 


A 


X 


1 


Like English I. 


Mu 


M 


/* 


m 


Like English m. 


Nu 


N 


V 


n 


Like English n. 


Xi 


S 


1 


X 


Like English x. 


Omicron 


o 





5 


Like in "obey." 


PI 


n 


n 


P 


Like EngUsh p. 


Eho 


p 


9 


r 


Like English r. 


Sigma 


2 


(T, s 


s 


Like English s. 


Tau 


T 


r 


t 


Like English t. 


Upsilon 


Y 


V 


u 


Like English «. 


Phi 


* 


4> 


ph 


Like English ^A. 


Chi 


X 


X 


ch 


Like ch in " chaos,'! 
or in Scotch 
"loch." 


Psi 


* 


f 


ps 


Likens in "lips." 


OmSga 


a 


a 





Like in "bone."' 



PRONUNCIATION 3 

Notes on the Alphabet 

(1) The examples given to show the pronunciation of a, f. rj, i, v 
indicate the pronunciation generally given to these letters in English 
schools. It is however certainly wrong, as is also the usual English 
pronunciation of Latin. 

A more correct prommciation would probably be as follows : 

a to be pronounced as a in " father." 

r] to be pronounced as «y in " they." 

t to be pronounced as i in " machine " when long, and as i in " pit " 
when short. 

V to be pronounced as French u in " du." We have no equivalent 
sound in English : the y sound in such words as " sympathy " will do 
fairly well. It should be noted that when a Greek word is transliterated 
into English, v always becomes ^, for examples take the words " sym- 
pathy," " hydropathic." 

The form of the Greek capital letter Y is just like our letter Y, the 
reason being that our letter Y is derived from the Greek through the 
Latin. 

The student will probably find it convenient and almost necessary 
to adopt the usual English pronunciation as things are. The matter is 
not one of vital importance. 

(2) It will be noticed that two forms are given for the letter a- : 
the first is used when the letter occurs at the beginning or in the 
middle of a word, the second when it occurs at the end. 

The pronunciation of Diphthongs 

Diphthongs are sounds produced by two vowels being sounded 
together ; they are generally sounded as follows in England : 

ai to be pronounced as ai in " aisle." 

« to be pronounced as ei in " height.'' 

ot to be pronounced as oi in "oil." 

av to be pronounced as aw in " caw." 

ov to be pronounced as ow in " cow." 

€v to be pronounced as " you." 

VI to be pronounced as wi in " wipe." 
It would be more correct to pronounce av like ow in " cow," and ov 
like 00 in " loose." 

1—2 



4 CONSONANTS 

Classification of Consonants, for reference only 

Consonants are divided into three groups : 

(1) Mdtes, or letters which cannot be sounded by themselvef 
•^1 7j X, 'Tj A (t>> T, 8, 6. 

(2) Semi- Vowels, or letters which have some sound of their own 
X, fi, ./, p, a. 

(3) Double Letters, or letters which are made up of two con 
sonants. ^, f, i^. 

The Mdtes are again subdivided according to the part of the voca 
organs used in producing them : 

(a) Gutturals, or letters produced in the throat (Latin "guttur"] 
"^ 7. X- 

(6) Labials, or letters produced by the lips (Latin "labia") 
ff, ft 0. 

(c) Dentals, or letters produced by the teeth (Latin "dens") 
r, 8, 6. 

The Semi- Vowels are divided into : 

(a) Liquids. X, /i, v, p. 

(6) Spirant, a-. 



Exercise 1 

(1) Write out the English alphabet and give the Greek equivalen 
for each letter as far as possible. 

(2) Write out the Greek alphabet with the English equivalent fo 
each letter. 

These exercises should be repeated many times until perfect. 



BREATHINGS AND ACCENTS 



LESSON II 

BREATHINGS, ACCENTS, IOTA SUBSCRIPT 

It will be noticed that there is no sign for the letter A in the Greek 
alphabet. The want of such a sign is made up by the marks called 
breathings, one of which is written over every vowel or diphthong that 
begins a word. The rough breathing ' (turned like the opening comma 
in inverted commas) is sounded like our letter h, 6 is pronounced " ho," 
A is pronounced "ha." The smooth breathing ' indicates that the 
vowel is to be sounded without the rough h sound. If the word begins 
with a diphthong, the breathing is placed over the second vowel, and 
not over the first — ovtos not ovtos. p at the beginning of a word 
generally has a rough breathing. 

pp in the middle of a word is sometimes written pp. 

Accents are marks invented by Aristophanes of Byzantium about 
200 B.O. in order to teach foreigners the correct pronunciation of Greek. 
They were not written in the ancient manuscripts. They denoted 
musical pitch and not stress, and no use of them is made now as a 
guide to correct speech. The student who is pressed for time is 
recommended not to trouble about the accents except in the case of 
verbs. 

They are chiefly of use to distinguish certain words which differ 
only in accent. A list of these together with a brief account of the 
principles of accentuation is given in the appendix. 

The student however must on no account neglect the breathings, 
but must write and pronounce them carefully. 

A small I is often written under the letters a, ij, m especially when 
one of these letters ends a word. It is called the Iota Subscript and 
is a relic of an ancient diphthong. It is not pronounced, but it 
must always be written. All the other letters in a Greek word are 
pronounced. 

yy is pronounced "ng," iyyi^a "engizo." 



EXERCISES 



Sxercise 2 



Write out the following in Greek letters inserting breathings where 
necessary. The English letter h at the beginning of a word denotes a 
rough breathing. The vowels e and o are marked with a stroke ovei 
the line when they are long ; when not marked they are short. Care 
must be taken to use the proper Greek letter for them. 

The letter i in brackets denotes that t subscript is to be written 
under the preceding vowel. Use small letters throughout. 

en arche(i) gn ho logos, kai ho logos en pros ton theon, kai theos 
6n ho logos, houtos en en arche(i) pros ton theon. panta di autou 
egeneto kai choris autou egeneto oude hen ho gegonen. en auto(i) zoe 
en, kai hs zoB gn to phos ton anthropon. kai to phos en t6(i) skotia(i) 
phainei, kai he skotia auto ou katelaben. egeneto anthrSpos apestal- 
menos para theou, onoma auto(i) ioanes. houtos elthen eis marturian, 
hina marturese(i) peri tou photos, hina pantes pisteusSsin di autou. ouk 
en ekeinos to phos, all hina marturesS(i) peri tou photos, en to phSs to 
alethinon ho photizei panta anthropon erchomenon eis ton kosmon. 
en td(i) kosmo(i) en, kai ho kosmos di autou egeneto, kai ho kosmos 
auton ouk egno. eis ta idia elthen, kai hoi idioi auton ou parelaboa. 
hosoi de elabon auton edoken autois exousian tekna theou genesthai, 
tois pisteuousin eis to onoma autou, hoi ouk ex haimaton oude ek 
thelematos sarkos oude ek thelematos andros all ek theou egennethesanj 
kai ho logos sarx egeneto kai eskenosen en hemin, kai etheasametha ten 
doxan autou, doxan hos monogenous para patros pleres charitos kai 
aletheias. 

The student may correct his exercise by comparing it with the first 
14 verses of the 1st chapter of St John in the Bible Society's (Nestle's): 
Greek Testament. This exercise should be done several times until 
perfect. 

Write out the Greek of St John i. 19-28 in English characters. 

Read as much as possible of the Greek Testament aloud, paying 
great attention to the breathings and the length of the vowels. 

Students who are working alone and who have no one to whom they 
can read aloud are recommended to put portions of the Greek into 
English letters, and to put them back into Greek letters after an 
interval. It is most important to be able to read the characters 
accurately and quickly before proceeding further. 



1st singular 


Xeyeo 


(lego) 


2nd „ 


\4ytis 


(legeis) 


3rd „ 


\4yei 


(legei) 


1st plural 


'Keyojiev 


(legomen) 


2nd „ 


Xf'yfTf 


(legete) 


3rd „ 


Xeyouo-i(i') 


(legousj) 



PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE 



LESSON III 

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF THE VEEB IN THE 
ACTIVE VOICE 

The Present Indicative Active of the verb XEyo) "I say" is as 
follows : 

I say, or I am saying. 
Thou sayest, or thou art saying. 
He, she, or it says, or is saying. 
We say, or we are saying. 
You say, or you are saying. 
They say, or they are saying. 

Note : the v at the end of the 3rd person plural is written when the 
next word begins with a vowel. 

Each of the Greek words given in the table above may be divided 
into two parts : 

(1) a stem Xfy- which never changes, and which denotes the 
meaning of the verb, i.e. "say.'' 

(2) an ending m, ets, ei, ofiev, etc. which changes with every person. 
As nearly every Greek verb has the same endings in the present 

tense it is easy to conjugate the present tense of any other verb by 
first taking off the final a> of the 1st person singular to find the stem, 
and then adding the endings in order to this stem. 

The words in the table above, when compared with their English 
equivalents, furnish a good example of one of the principal differences 
between Greek and English, namely that one word is sufficient to 
express an idea in Greek, where two or three words are necessary in 
English. 

This is because the endings of words are changed in the Greek 
language to denote changes in the meaning of the words, while in 
English these variable endings have almost entirely disappeared. 

For example, in the English present tense the only forms which 
retain their personal endings are the 2nd and 3rd persons singular 
" sayest " and "says." Consequently it is necessary to insert a personal 
pronoun "I," "thoii," "he," etc. before the verb to avoid confusion, 
and to show the person and number of the subject of the verb. But in 



8 THE GREEK PRESENT 

Greek the person and number of the subject of the verb are already 
made sufficiently clear by the variable ending, and so there is no neea 
to add a personal pronoun unless special emphasis is required. 

It will be found that this principle applies to all forms of the: 
verbs. 

It will be noticed that two English equivalents are giveu for the 
one Greek form of the Present tense. This is because there are more 
tenses in English than in Greek, and one Greek tense has to do the 
work of two EngUsh tenses. 

The first form given in English above is called the Present 
Indefinite, or Present Simple ; the second is called the Present 
Continuous. 

The Greek Present corresponds more closely in meaning to the 
English Present Continuous than to the Present Simple. 

In the forms of the Present Continuous tense will be noticed 
another difierence between English and Greek, namely that in English 
we freely employ Auxiliary or helping verbs to form our tenses (in this 
case the present tense of the verb " to be " is used) while in Greek a 
single word is used. 

In spoken English we now never use the 2nd person singular in 
addressing a single person, but always the 2nd person plural. 

In Greek the 2nd person singular is always used in addressing a 
single person, and the 2nd person plural is kept for addressing more 
than one person. In these exercises when " thou " is written in English 
the 2nd person singular must be used in Greek, and when "ye," or 
"you" is written the 2nd person plural must be used in Greek, unless 
an indication is given to the contrary. 

In translating the Greek Testament it is better to use the 2nd person 
singular of the English verb when the 2nd person singular is used in 
Greek. 



Exercise 3 

Learn Vocabulary 1, p. 122. The words given in this and the 
following vocabularies are all words which occur frequently in the 
New Testament. The student should make a habit of carefully 
mastering all the words in the vocabularies as he goes along, as 
this will save much subsequent labour. The words given in brackets 



CONTRACTED VERBS 9 

after the English meanings of the words are words derived from 
the Greek words. They are intended to help the learner to remember 
them. The Greek words are also transliterated in the first few 
vocabularies. 

Give the English for : \4yei, \4yofifv, Xiyovtri, \4yfTe, Xiyiis. eipi- 
(TKO^eVf ypd<j}€ij /SaXXert, d7ro6vr}(TK€i, /yXeTretff, €yeLpQV(n, Kpivere^ ^dWop.€v, 
etTOLOJ, a7roo"TeX\ov(7(, aKOuoutrt, Xa/ijSai/erc, tra^ofiev, fiivei. 

Give the Greek for : we say, they say, thou sayest, ye say, he says, 
they are saying, she is saying, you say, they are dying, he dies, I am 
throwing, she arises, we judge, thou art remaining, I am throwing, ye 
judge, he sends, yoxi are writing, thou art eating, he finds, we are taking, 
they look, she hears. 



LESSON IV 

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF CONTRACTED 
VERBS IN fco 

When certain vowels come together in the same word they unite 
and form a diphthong, or a single long vowel. 

This is called " contraction." 

There are many verbs whose stems end in e, and, when the personal 
endings are added to such stems, contraction takes place. 

£ coming before another c becomes «. 

( coming before o becomes ov. 

€ coming before a long vowel, or a diphthong, drops out. 

The present jtense of the verb (^iXc'a> "I love" is conjugated as 
follows : 

I love, or I am loving. 
Thou lovest, or thou art loving. 
He, she, or it loves, or is loving. 
We love, or we are loving. 
You love, or you are loving. 
They love, or they are loving. 



^iXS 


for <f>iK4ai 


<j>i,\eis 


for <t)i\f'fis 


(fiiKei 


for <l>i\€€t 


(l>i\ovnfv 


for (\>Ckioiiev 


<jiiK€lT€ 


for (fiiKhTe 


((>ikov(ri 


for <^tXeouo-t 



10 



SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS IN 05 



Exercise 4 

Learn Vocabulary 2. 

XaXoviiCv, aiTfir, rripovai, iroifire, napaKoKel, fiaprvpova-i, (rfTfiTf, Ka\a, 
6fa>povp,ev, Trjpeis. 

They seek, he asks, thou callest, we bear witness, they speak, you 
keep safe, I exhort, she makes, you behold, we love, they call, she asks, 
we seek, they bear witness, he beholds. 



LESSON V 



NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION ENDING IN or 

Nouns of the Second Declension ending in or in the Nominative: 
case are dechned as follows. They are nearly all Masculine. 



Singular 



Plural 



The declension of the noun given above brings before us again the 
difference between English and Greek mentioned in Lesson III, namely 
that it is often necessary to employ two or more words in English 
where one sufl&ces in Greek. The various modifications of meaning! 
which are expressed in Greek by adding case endings to the noun are 
expressed in English by placing a preposition before the noun, or by 
altering the order of the words in the sentence. The only noun 

1 The Iota Subscript ie always written under the m of the Dative Singular 
of the second declension : it is not sounded. 



Name of Case 


Greek 


English 


Nominative 


\6yos 


a word (subject). 


Vocative 


Xoye 


word. 


Accusative 


\6yov 


a word (object). 


Genitive 


\6yov 


of a word. 


Dative 


Xciyffll 


to or for a word. 


Nominative 


Xdyoi 


words (subject). 


Vocative 


Xoyoi 


woi'ds. 


Accusative 


Xiyovs 


words (object). 


Genitive 


Xoyo)!/ 


of words. 


Dative 


Xd-yois 


to or for words. 



NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE 11 

endings which remain in English are the 's and s' of the Possessive 
ease, and the s or other ending added to make the plural. 

For example, if we want to show that a word is the subject of a 
sentence, we nearly always put it before the verb, while the word which 
is the object of the sentence is placed after the verb. 

If we invert the order of the words, we invert the meaning of the 
sentence. 

In the sentence "An angel finds a man," the word "angel" is the 
subject of the sentence, and the word " man " the object. 

On the other hand in the sentence "A man finds an angel" "man" 
is the subject of the sentence, and " angel " the object. 

We have inverted the order of the words, and, in so doing, we have 
also inverted the meaning of the sentence. 

In Greek the first sentence should be written : 
ayyeXos evpltTKei avOptoirov, 

We show that ayyeKos is the subject by putting it in the Nominative 
case, and that SvBptonov is the object by putting it in the Accusative 
case. 

In Greek the meaning of the sentence is still the same if we invert 
the order of the words and write avdpiowov fvpLa-Kei ayyeXos, because in 
Greek it is not the order of the words, but the case form, which decides 
which word is the subject or object. 

RULES 

(1) The subject of a Finite' verb is in the Nominative case. 

(2) The direct object of a Transitive verb is in the Accusative 
case. 

Before translating an English sentence into Greek it is necessary to 
know which word is the subject of the verb, and which is its direct 
object, if it has one. 

The subject can always be found by putting "who?" or "what?" 
before the verb. 

In the first sentence given above : " An angel finds a man," we ask 
" Who finds ?" The answer is " an angel." " An angel " is therefore 
the subject of the sentence. 

In the same way we can easily see that " a man " is the subject of 
the second sentence. 

1 A Finite verb is a verb in any mood but the Infinitive. 



12 SUBJECT AND OBJECT 

We can find the direct Object by placing " whom 1 " or " what ? " 
after the verb. In the case of the first sentence we say " an angel finds 
whom?" Answer "a mau." Therefore "a man" is the object of the 
sentence. 

Many verbs such as the verb " I remain " cannot have a direct 
object. Verbs which cannot have a direct object are called Intran- 
sitive verbs, because the action which they denote does not pass over 
to some other person or thing (Latin " transire "). 

Verbs which can have a direct object are called Transitive verbs, 
because the action which they denote passes over to another person or 
thing. 

It is easy to find which English verbs are Transitive and which are 
Intransitive by making a sentence containing the verb and seeing if a 
direct object can be put after it, or not. 

(3) All verbs agree with their subject in number and person. 

As all nouns are in the third person it is obvious that all verbs 
which have a noun for a subject must be in the third person. 

If the subject of the verb is a noun in the singular number, the 
verb will be in the third person singular ; if the subject of the verb is 
a noun in the plural number, or two or more nouns joined together by 
" and," the verb will be in the third person plural. 

Examples : 

avBpaiwoi, c(rBlov<nv Sprov. Men eat bread. 

HvBpiairos Kal 8ov\os ea-Blovcriv Sprov. A man and a slave eat bread. 

The English Indefinite Article " a " is not translated into Greek. 

Exercise 5 

Learn Vocabulary 3. 

1. nvBpai'rros fX" ^ovKovs. 2. SyyeXos \a6v (rwfei. 3. Kvpios Xoyovs 
ypdcjxi,. 4. iyeipeis dovXoi'. 5. a.v6pa>voi obov fvpio-KOvm. 6. SoCXos 
^XfTTfi oiKOvs. 7. avBpanos (iTrooTeXXet a8iK(j}ovs. 8. Xa/i/Savcrf olkov. 
9. SoCXoj e^ft Kvpiov. 10. evpiiTKop.ev 686v. 11. rrjpfiTe v6p.ovs. 
12. avBpanos Koi bovKoi evpi(TKOviriv abe\<j}ovs. 

1. A man hears an angel. 2. An angel rouses a man. 3. Slaves 
find a way. 4. A brother has a house. 5. Lords send slaves. 
6. They are writing words. 7. You find an angel. 8. A lord judges 
men. 9. We rouse slaves. 10. Thou keepest laws. 11. A man and 
an angel see the way. 12. Thou beholdest death. 



GENITIVE AND DATIVE. THE ARTICLE 13 



LESSON VI 

USE OF THE GENITIVE AND DATIVE CASES. 
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 

The Genitive Case can generally be translated into English by the 
use of the Preposition " Of," or by the Possessive Case, formed by 
adding 's to the noun. 

Example : o'koj avBpanov means, "a house of a man," or "a man's 
house." 

The commonest use of the Dative Case is to denote the person To 
or For whom anything is done. It is used to express the indirect 
object after verbs meaning "to give," etc. 

Examples : He writes ]a,ws for a people. 

ypa^ii v6}JlOVS Xa^. 
He gives a house to a man. 

In the last sentence oIkov is called the direct object, and av6pd>ira 
the indirect object, because it is not directly affected by the action of 
the verb. 

The Definite Article 

The Definite Article which corresponds to the English "the" is 

declined in Greek like a noun. The forms that go with words like 
Xdyor are as follows : 

Singular. N. 6 Plural. 

A. TOV 
G. TOV 
D. TM 

It will be noticed that the endings except the Nominative Singular 
are the same as the endings of Xdyor. 

The definite article is always in the same case and number as the 
noun to which it is joined. 

Examples : Of the man, toO dvdpanov. To the men, tois dvBpairois. 
"The man's house" is generally written in the following 
order : 6 toO av6pa>7rov oikos. 



N. 


01 


A. 


TOVS 


G. 


TOJV- 


D. 


Tols 



14 SECOND DECLENSION NEUTER NOUNS 

Exercise 6 

Revise Vocabularies 1, 2, 3. 

1. 01 SoCXoi TTOiova-iv 686v t^ Kvpitf. 2. oi avdpanoi CrjTOXKTiv rois 
dyyeXovs. 3. ■ypa(^« t&v tov Kvpiov^ vo/iov. 4. o tov SovXm d8e\(j)6s 
^Xfirci TOV oiKov. 5. ypd4>oiiev rovs vo^oui r^ Xam. 6. 6^ 6e6s (jyiKel 
roiis d8eX</)ovs. 7. fj;reiTe tov rSi/ avBpairav d8e\<f>6v. 8. Tqpovaiv 
TOV TOV 6fov \6yov. 9. 01 SoOXoi eipia-KOva-iv ttjv 686v toIs Kvpiois. 
10. Xap.pdvop.ev tov vopov Ta KOtrpa. 11. XaXS rois Xoyoui tw Xaa, icai 
d Xaos Trtoreuet. 

1. The angel finds the men. 2. They are writing the laws for the 
people. 3. "We are seeking the brothers of the slave. 4. The lord's 
slaves are making a way. 5. The slave remains. 6. You behold the 
house of God 2. 7. "We keep the law of the Lord. 8. They write 
words for the slaves. 9. We find a way for the people. 10. The man 
saves the slave's brother. 11. The man and the slave are making 
bread. 12. The brethren believe. 13. The angel writes laws for the 
world. 



LESSON VII 

NEUTER NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION 

In English all nouns denoting men or male animals are in the 
Masculine gender ; all nouns denoting women or female animals are 
in the Feminine gender ; all other nouns are Neuter. 

But in Greek the rule is not so simple. 

Nearly all nouns denoting men or male animals are Masculine, and 
nearly all those denoting women or female animals are Feminine : but 
other nouns may be either Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter. The 
gender is generally decided by the ending. 

1 When Kipios is written with a capital letter it meana " The Lord " ; it 
sometimea haa the definite article and sometimes not. It is the word used 
in the Greek Version of the Old Teatament to denote the aaored name 
Jehovah. 

' Beds generally haa the definite article in Greek, but not in Engliah. 



GENDER AND TERMINATIONS 15 

In the Second Declension nearly all nouns ending in os in the 
Nominative singular are Masculine ; 6S6s " a way," epij^oy " a desert," 
irapBevos " a maiden," which are Feminine, are some of the few excep- 
tions to this rule. 

All nouns ending in ov in the Nominative singular are Neuter. 

The declension of these neuter nouns is given below. 

Note that the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative cases have the 
same ending. This is the case with all neuter nouns. 

Declension of epyov " a work." 



Singular. N. epyov 


Plural. 


N. 


?pya 


V. epyov 




V. 


epya 


A. epyov 




A. 


tpya 


Q. epyov 




G. 


epyojv 


D. epya 




D. 


epyois 


ifinite Article that goes 


with neuter 


nouns is dt 


Singular. N. rd 


Plural. 


N. 


TCL 


A. TO 




A. 


TO. 


G. ToC 




G. 


tS>v 


D. TW 




D. 


To'tS 



follows : 



A noun in the neuter plural which stands as the subject of a 
sentence is nearly always followed by a verb in the singular and is 
thus an exception to the principle stated in the rule on p. 12. 

Example : ra iraibia evpiaKei to /3t/3Xta. 

The children find the books. 



Exercise 7 

Learn Yocabulary 4. 

1. 6 8ov\os jSXeTTfi TO SevSpa tS>v avBpiinav. 2. d Kvpios Jrotcl ra 
epya rm Kocr/iO). 3. evpl<rK0iiev to lepov tov 6eov. 4. to. npo^aTa Beiopel 
TO. hevhpa. 5. aKOVOvai to evayyeKiov. 6. Trjpels to ^i^Xi'o. 7. 8cu- 
poviov e)(eis. 8. Xa/x^dvere ra jrXoia. 9. Beapovpev to Trpotranrov tov 
Kvpioi: 10. aToareWovcn to. irmSia tov dovXov. 11. rripovpev to 
a-d^^aTa Tov Kvpiov. 12. (roifere ra TCKva. 13. Ta irmSia ?;(« to. 
/3t0Xia. 



16 FIRST DECLENSION FEMININE NOUNS 

1. They take the garments of the men. 2. We send the brother's 
children. 3. The angel receives the books for the people. 4. The 
children have the garments. 5. He beholds the face of God. 6. Thou 
hast the sheep. 7. You find the trees. 8. The Lord judges the works 
of men. 9. ' We seek the temple. 10. God works miracles (does signs) 
for the people. 11. The man seeks the young child. 12. The children 
eat the loaves. 13. Thou keepest the money safe. 



LESSON VIII 

FEMININE NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION 

Nouns of the First Declension ending in a or r/ in the Nominative 
singular are declined as follows. They are all feminine. 





dpxri a beginning. 


ripApa 


a day. 




Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


N. 


v. dpxri 


dpxai 


iip.epa 


fiiUpai 


A. 


dpxnv 


dpxds 


jjliipav 


f)p.ipas 


G. 


dpxijs 


dpxS>v 


rjpApas 


f/p^pav 


D. 


"PXfi 


apxciis 


fi/iipq 


fjpepms 



Observe the i subscript in the Dative singular. 

The article which goes with these nouns is declined as follows : 

Singular. N. fi Plural. N. ai 

A. Trjv A, Tar 

G. Trjs G, tS)v 

D. T^ D. Tois 

We have now had examples of nouns of all the three genders, and 
of the forms of the article which go with them. 

The full declension of the definite article is as follows : 

Singular 
Masc. Fern. Neut. 



N. 


6 


h 


TO 


A. 


TOP 


Trjv 


TO 


G. 


TOV 


Tfjs 


TOV 


D. 


TW 


rv 


T^ 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 17 





Plural 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


N. oi 


al 


TO. 


A. *rouj 


rds 


TO. 


G. tS)v 


rS)v 


Ta>p 


D. rols 


rats 


rots 



RULE 

The definite article agrees with the noun with which it is 
connected in number, gender, and case. 

Exercise 8 

Learn Vocabulary 5. 

1. ff dyaTTTj fieuei. 2. Xafi^dvo^ev Trjv^ biKaioavvrjv. 3. irapaKdKovai 
Trfv fKK\ri(rlav. 4. 6}S.vpios KpiveiTas\jni)(asTSiv^ dvdpaiTrav. 5. /SXcjrere 
TTiv (rvvayayfiv rav aSf\(f>S)v. 6. ^rjTOvpev ttjv ^airiXeiav tov 6fov, 
7. e;^«s T-^v* (TOCjbi'ai' KoiT-^v^ p^apav. 8. TrjpeiTe Tas fVToKas tS>v ayyiXojv^ 
9. Oi aSeX(^oi d7ro(rreXXouo"tv ras ypa<pds, 

1. We receive the promises of God. 2. They have the Lord's-, 
commands. 3. The sins of the world remain. 4. Thou hearest the. 
voice of the Lord. 5. We bear witness to the truth (dat.). 6. You 
exhort the church. 7. He has righteousness, peace and joy. 8. The 
brethren are writing the Scriptures. 9. The Lord keeps the souls of 
men. 10. Ye are seeking wisdom. 



LESSON IX 

MASCULINE NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 
FEMININE NOUNS ENDING IN a PRECEDED BY A 
CONSONANT 

Nouns of the First Declension ending in tjs or as in the Nominative 
singular are masculine. They are declined as foUovvs : 

' Abstract nouns generally have a definite article before them in Greek 
and so have also words like avSpuwos which denote a whole class. This 
article is not translated into English. 

For the article before Seis, see p. 14. 

N. 2 



18 



NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION 



71 


rpo(^i)n;y a pp 


ophet. 


viavias a young 


man. 




Singular ■ 


Plural ■ 


Singular 


Plural 


N. 


TT po(l>riTris 


irpo^TiTai 


veavias 


veaviai 


V. 


irpoiprira 


7rpo(j)rJTai 


veayta 


vtaviai 


A. 


npo<j)rjTr]v 


7rpo<f>T]Tas 


veavtav 


vfavias 


G. 


wpo<pr)TOv 


IT po<\>rjT5iV 


veaviov 


veavtav 


D. 


7rpo(j>^Tri 


TrpotfirjTaK 


veaviq 


veaviais 



Nouns of the First Declension ending in u in the Nominative 
singular not preceded by a vowel or the • letter p are declined as 
follows : 

&6^a glory. 

Singular. N. V. 8o|a Plural, bo^ai 

A. So^av 8d|a9 

G, 8q^7JS 8o^a>v 

D. So^r/ 86^ais 

Note that all nouns of the 1st Declension have the same endings in 
the plural. 

Exercise 9 

Learn Vocabulary 6. The conjunctions 8f', yap, ovv never stand as 
the first word of a sentence. The prepositions ev, a-iv, dwo, ck, -irpo, 
fls are always followed by a noun or pronoun in the proper case, as 
mentioned in the vocabulary. 

1. oi KaXovo'i, Toiis npo^rjTas els ttjv cTvvaya>yf]v. 2. o yap Kvpios 
ypdcfyei ras enayyeXias ev ra'is xapSiais tS>v d8e\(j)5n>. .3. ■irapaKa\ov(n 
roi/s^ 7rpo<l)TjTas a'vv tois^ padijTois. 4. ra Se TrXota ou pivei ev rrj 
6akdu(T7]. 5, ev dpjQ 6 de6s aTroareWei tovs Tppo^r^ras. 6. ov-j^ 
evplfTKOvo't TO TeKva ev rfj 68^. 7. ol fiadrjTal p,evovtTiv ev rfj e^ovcitfy, 
Tov SecTTTOTOV. 8. 6 veavtas Xap-^dvei to ipdrtov diro TTJs Ke(j)aXfis Tov 
iraiSiov. 9. fj^ jrapBevos evpio-Ket rd ^i^Xia. 

1. We do not see the boats on the lake. 2. The master sends the 
children with the slaves from the synagogue. 3. Thou remainest 
before the house of the Lord. 4. The prophets exhort the brethren ; 
and the people. 5. Therefore the sin of the world remains. 6. They! 
behold the glory of the Lord in the temple. 7. The Baptist remains 
in the synagogue with the disciples. 8. They send the prophet from 

' See the rule on p. 17. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION 19 

the lake with the Baptist. 9. You send the children out of the house. 
10. For the church does not hear the commandments and the promises 
of the prophet. 11. They call the disciples to the assembly. 12. For 
God writes the commandments in the hearts of the disciples. 13. The 
young men hear the parables of the kingdom. 



LESSON X 

ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 
THE PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB "TO BE" 

Adjectives of the Second Declension are declined as follows : 
dyaSos "good." 
Masc 
Sing. 



Plur. 



Note that the Masculine endings are the same as those of 2nd 
Declension uouns in os. The Feminine endings are the same as those 
of 1st Declension nouns in q. The Neuter endings are the same as 
those of 2nd Declension nouns in ov. 

If a vowel or the letter p comes immediately before the endings of 
an adjective, the endings in the Feminine are the same as those of 
fjficpa. 

Example: Syos "holy." 

&yia ayiov 

dyia aytov 

dyiap ayiov 

dyias dyiov 

dylq dyia 

2—2 





Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


N. 


dyaBos 


dyaBrj 


dyaBov 


V. 


dyaQe 


dyaBj) 


dyaBov 


A. 


dyaBov 


dyaBrjv 


dyaBov 


G. 


dyaBov 


dyaBrjs 


dyaBov 


D. 


dyaBa 


dyaBrj 


dyajBw 


. V. 


dyaBoi 


dyaBai 


dyaBa 


A. 


dyaBovs 


dyaBds 


dyaBd 


G. 


dyaBav 


dyaBav 


dyaBav 


D. 


dyaBois 


dyaBois 


dyaBois 



N. 


ayios 


V. 


dyie 


A. 


Sr/Lov 


G. 


dyiov 


D. 


dyita 



20 AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. elfJii 



RULE 

Adjectives agree with the noun which they qualify in number, 
gender, and case. 

Note. An adjective preceded by an article is practically equivalent 
to a noun. 6 irpSyros "the first" (man) ; to fo-p^ara "the last things"; 
a'l dyadai "the good" (women); ol ayiot "the holy'' (men) or "the 
saints." 

The Present Indicative of the verb " to be " is as follows : 

Singular Plural 

1st fljii I am ia-iiev we are 

2nd (t thou art eVre you are 

3rd foTiiy) he, she, or it is el(ri{v) they are 

The verb " to be " belongs to a class of verbs called " Copulative 
Verbs " because they serve to couple or link together two nouns or a 
noun and an adjective. Such verbs cannot make a statement by 
themselves, but must be followed by a noun or an adjective to make 
a complete predicate. This noun or adjective is called a predicative 
noun or adjective, or the complement. These predicative noims or 
adjectives are not put in the Accusative case like the object of a 
transitive verb, because they are not objects. They must always be 
in the same case as the subject of the verb, and, in the case of 
predicative adjectives, they must agree with the subject in number 
and gender as well as case. 

This rule is sometimes stated in this form : 

RULE 
The verb " to be " takes the same case after it as before it. 

Examples : 









Predicative noun 


Subject 




Verb 


or adjective 


The man 




is 


a prophet 


6 avdparros 




eoTL 


1TpO(l>rjTTJS 


God 




is 


good 


6 Oeos 




ea-nv 


dyados 


We 




are 


slaves 




SovKoi 


ea-fiev 





IMPERFECT INDICATIVE 21 

You are just 

BiKatoi 4tTTe 
The tongue is evil 

■yXatro'd ea-Ti KUKr] 

Note. The various parts of the verb " to be " given above should 
not be placed as the first words in a sentence. 

Exercise 10 

Learn Vocabulary 7. 

1. rj €KK\r]<rla ttutti] eartv* 2. ol avdpciTTot jrpo<l>TlTaL elatv. 3. rj 
^aaiKeta etrri kukiJ. 4. rj evToXrj tov alcoviov deov SiKola iariv, 5. Xa/x- 
jQavoufft TO tdta ip^axta. 6. erepot avOpaiTOi p,4vovcnv iv ra npara TrXola, 
7. r€Kva ayairryrd etrfiev tov Qeov. 8. 6 npSyros ea'Ttv eaxoros, Kal 6 
ea^aros Trp&Tos. 9. ol dyiol rrjpovaLV rd dyia o-d^^ara tov deov. 10. ^ 
yXatra-a vovr^pd iariv. 11. ai iriOTaX fievova-iv iv TO) Upa. 12. iiadrjTai 
eare tov Kvplov. 13. ayLos ei, Kvpte. 14. Ka\ovp.€v Toiis erepovs veavias. 

1. The brethren are disciples. 2. We are prophets. 3. Thou art 
good, master. 4. The writings of the Apostles are holy. 5. A 
different man is in the last boat. 6. We remain in the evil world. 
7. He makes his own garments. 8. The man is just and good. 
9. Therefore the Baptist exhorts the evil men. 10. The saints 
remain before the house of God. 11. God keeps the souls of the 
saints. 12. Ye exhort the disciples. 



LESSON XI 

THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE. 
ACCENTUATION OF VERBS 

All past tenses of the Indicative mood are preceded by the letter t 
which is called the Augment. If the verb begins with a consonant the 
Augment is simply placed before the verb : Present, Xiya ; Imperfect 
fXtyoi'. If the verb begins with a vowel the Augment combines 

with it. 

e before a becomes 77, 

E before e becomes i; (except in the verb ex"")' 
t, o, V are lengthened into 1, a>, v. 



22 



THE AUGMENT 



A diphthong lengthens its first vowel : 



Examples : 



m becomes r/, ei becomes t;, 

01 becomes 9, and ev becomes tjv. 

Present Imperfect 



UKOVO) 


JJKOVOV 


eytipa 


rjyeipov 


ofjioXoyea) 


ap-oKoyovv 


aheo 


rjTovp 


otKc'a) 


(OKOVV 


evptcrKa 


rjVpUTKOV 


but ep^Q) 


flxov 



As these changes take place at the beginning of the words they 
must be carefully noticed, or it will not be possible to find the words 
in a dictionary where verbs are generally given under the Present 
tense. 

When a verb is compounded with a preposition' (compare the 
English verbs "to out-number," "to under-take") the Augment 
generally comes between the preposition and the verb. The last 
vowel of the preposition generally drops out ; en becomes e|. 



Examples : 



Present 
airo6vi)(TK(a 
TTapaKoKea 
6Kj3aXXa) 
vndyta 
but TrepiiraTem 



Imperfect 

diriQvTIITKOV 

TrapiKoKovv 

vw^yov 
TrepLeTraTOVV 

The conjugation of the Imperfect Indicative Active of ordinary and 
contracted verbs in em is given below. 



Singular 



Plural 



1. 
2. 
3. 

1. 
2. 
3. 



eKeyov 
fXeyer 

cXeye(j/) 

lKiyop.fv 

iXeyerc 

eXtyov 



I was saying, or I used to say. 

Thou wast saying, or thou usedst to say. 

He was saying, or he used to say. 

We were saying, or we used to say. 
You were saying, or you used to say. 
They were saying, or they used to say. 



1 Verbs compounded with a preposition are marked with an asterisk (* 
in the earlier vocabularies. 



€<l}l\0VV 


for €(jilXfov 


e(^i'Xets 


for i(f)i\fes 


e</)i'Xet 


for e'qbiXee 


ecjfuXoCjuev 


for €<j)l\eofl€v 


e(^tXetre 


for {(fiiKffTe 


i(f>CKovv 


for e<jil\eou 



ACCENTUATION OF VERBS 23 

I was loving, or I used to love. 
Thou wast loving, or thou usedst to love. 
He was loving, or he xised to love. 
We were loving, or we used to love. 
You were loving, or you used to love. 
They were loving, or they used to love. 

The meaning of the Imperfect. Strictly speaking, the Imperfect 
denotes continuous action in past time, or action often repeated in 
past time, and is represented by the English Past Continuous forms 
given in the tables above. But often a simple Past tense (" I said," 
"I loved" etc.) is a sufficient translation. 



The Accentuation of Verbs 

The accentuation of verbs is so simple, and, in many respects, so 
important that the student is recommended to make himself familiar 
with its principles, and to accent the verbs which he writes. 

If the last syllable of a verb is long (i.e. if it contains a long vowel 
or a diphthong, with the exception of at or ot^) the accent falls on the 
last syllable but one, with certain exceptions to be mentioned later. 

If the last syllable of a verb is short (i.e. if it contains a short 
vowel) the accent falls on the last syllable but two. 

N.B. For purposes of accentuation m and oi are considered as 
short vowels 1. 

The accent resembles the acute accent ' vised in French. 

All syllables other than those having the written accent are 
supposed to have an accent sloping the other way called the grave 
accent. This is never written, and it is only of importance in 
connection with the accentuation of contracted verbs. 

It wiU be noticed that contracted verbs have sometimes an acute 
accent, and sometimes a circumflex accent ". 

The principle on which the accentuation of these verbs is determined 
is as follows : if when the unoontracted form of the verb is written 
with all its accents an acute and a grave come together on the two 
syllables that are contracted in such a way that the grave follows 
the acute ", the two combine and form a circumflex. 

1 Except in the Optative Mood. 



24 EXERCISES 

But, if the grave comes before the acute on the syllables which 
contract ' ', the acute remains alone. Examples : <j!)iXtofiej' = (^'Xoi3^ej(i^ 
^iXeVi = (^(X». But f<^tX« = £<^iXei, <^iX«r<B = (^iX€iV<». 



Exercise 11 

Learn Vocabulary 8. 

1. ciireKTciveTe rois irpoiprjTas tov Kvpiov. 2. d tffor eireinre tovs 
dyyeXovs €ts rov K6<r[iov, 3. ^ye^ tovs fMadrjras diro ttjs 6a\d(r(rrjs. 4. ot 
Vfaviai eyfaipov. 5. ra npo^ara virrfyov^ ex T^s e'pf}p.ov. 6. d /Sairrtor^t 
^ajrri'ffi Tas jrapdfvovs. 7. 6 ayye\os dwiXve tov anoaroXov. 8. oi 
/ladijToi eSo^a^ov t6v Kvpiov. 9. oi ayaflol SofXoi e(J3fpov to. wpofiaTa. 
10. 'Imai'ijf d iSoTTTiOT^S c/cpa^c iv Trj eptiprp. 11. eSiSaa-Kes ra iraiSia 
<rvv Tots 8ov\ois. 12. €Kr)pva'aofiev to eiiayyeXtov T(p \aa. 13. tireiBov 
oSv Toi/s dvOpanovs, 14. irepifiraTovfiev iv rio f^/J^. 15. e^e^aXKes 
Ta BaifiQvia. 

1. They proclaimed the Gospel to the disciples. 2. The maidens 
departed from the house. 3. They dragged (dya>) the slave's boat to 
the sea. 4. The prophets used to teach the children in the houses. 
5. Ye glorified the Lord, angels. 6. Thou wast teaching the people. 
7. They were driving the sheep together to the trees. 8. The child 
was reading the scriptures in the temple. 9. We were departing from 
the lake. 10. John the Baptist did not work signs. 11. The Lord 
walked about in the wilderness. 12. Therefore you persuaded the 
people. 13. The saints were rejoicing. 14. He was casting out devils. 
15. We were carrying the boat. 16. You were loosing the slaves. 

1 If the accent falls on the last syllable but one of any word in which the 
last syllable but one is long, and the last syllable short, the acoeut is always 
circumflex. 

^ The accent never goes back beyond the augment. 



IMPERFECT OF etflL DEMONSTRATIVES 



25 



LESSON XII 



THE IMPERFECT OF THE VERB "TO BE." 
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, airos 

The Imperfect tense of the verb " to be " is as follows : 

Singular Plural 

1. rjiirfv (Jiv, Tj) I was 1. rjfi.(v we were 

2. rjs, ^o-da thou wast 2. rjTe you were 

3. fjv he was 3. rjirav they were 

The Demonstrative Pronouns oiros " this " and infivos " that " are 
declined as follows : 









Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


Sing. 


N 


V. 


O^TOS 


aVTTI 


TOVTO 






A. 


TOVTOV 


Tavrrjv 


rovTo 






G. 


TOVTOV 


Tavrrjs 


TOVTOV 






D. 


TOVT€d 


Tovrrj 


TOVTa 


Plur. 


N 


V. 


oSrot 


avrai 


TavTa 






A. 


TOVTOVS 


Tavras 


TavTa 






G. 


TOIITWV 


TOVTaV 


TOVTaV 




N. 


D. 

V. 


Tovrots 


ToiiTais 


TOVTOIS 


Sing. 


iKeivos 


cKeivrj 


CKeivo 






A. 


CKclvOV 


iKfivrjv 


cKeXvo 






G. 


€K€ivOV 


eKfivrjs 


enfivov 






D. 


€Keivif 


eKCivrj 


CKeiva 


Plur. 


N. 


V. 


cKeivoi 


€K€lVaL 


eKelva 






A. 


eneivovs 


eceiVas 


eiceiva 






G. 


CKeivau 


eKfivatv 


CKcivmv 






D^ 


cKeivots 


inelvais 


CKfivois 



It will be noticed that when there is an o or m in the endings of 
oStos the vowel of the first syllable is ov, when there is an i; or u 
it is av. 



■''" ovTo?, €Kecvo<;, avrov 

oUtos and exfij/or agree with the nouns which they qualify in 
number, gender, and case just like adjectives. When they qualify a 
noun the noun always has the article. 
Examples : 

This man, oStos 6 avdpairos, or 6 avdpmiros oStos, 
Those sheep, iKeiva to. irpo^ara, or ra npo^ara eKfiva. 
That commandment, exeivrj fj ivroki), or i) ivroXri eieeivri. 

When ovTos stands by itself without any word expressed for it to 
agree with it means "this man," aun? means "this woman," rovro 
means "this thing,'' ra€ra means "these things." 

The same is the case with eKcivos. 

avTos, avTT), airo is declined like inctvos. In the New Testament it 
is the ordinary word for " he, she, it " etc. 

Examples : 

For he saves the people. 

avTos yap ormffj tov \a6v. 

They were leading him to the sea. 

Tjyov avTov els Trjv dakaairav. 

He was sending her from the temple. 

67rf/t7rei/ avrfjv otto tov iepov. 

This is his slave. 

OVTOS €(TTt.v 6 bovKos aVTOV^. 

Those are her houses. 

QVTOL eltriv ol olkol ai/rrjs^. 

avTos also means "himself, herself, itself" when connected with a 
noun. 

Example :- Jesus himself taught them. 

Irjo-ovs aiiTos edldaaicev avrovs. 
(In Classical Grnek the nominative case of airos has this latter 
meaning only, and cannot be used in the sense of "he, she, it.") 

1 If a noun is followed by a genitive of aMs in the sense of " his, her," 
or "its," it always has an article. 



EXERCISES. THE PASSIVE 27 

Sxercise 12 

Revise Vocabularies 1—8. 

1. ovTot ol av6poj7roi airiByrifTKOv ev ttj eprj^a. 2. edeapovfiev tovs 
oiKovs avTwv. 3. ovTOs ovv ^v fiadrjT^s *lcodvov rod ^aTrrtaTov, 4. rjijLev 
yap doSXoi TTJS ifiaprias. 5. ineiva Si to SivSpa e^aWov fls tijk doKaaaav, 
6. avTOt epevov ev tm irXolaj, 7. 6 yap 3ebs trwfet avrovs diro tov 
TTOvrjpov (the evil one). 8. ^re oZv Sea-n-orai tov Xaov. 9. ov yap 
Kpivofiev ravTa. 10. ot viol avrov ^aav KaKoL 11. avrrj yap rjv tj 
€VTo\rf avTov^ 12. eKr]pva-(ropev ravra ev rrj eKKXTjtTLa. 13. fKetvot Se 
e^ejSaXXov ra Satfiovta. 14. eV CKfivrj Tjj rjjiepq eSd^afov Tyjv o'ocfyiav tov 
Kvpiov. 15. ai irapBivoi &vvTJyov ra vpo^ara avrSiv els ra bivSpa. 
16. ev eKeivji rfj &pq exalpop,ev. 17. d 'lijo-oOs avTos ovk efidirniev dXKd 
01 jiadrjTal airov. 18. ij fa)?; jucvei ev avTois. 

1. In the beginning was the word. 2. This is the love of God. 
3. For the Lord saves the souls of men from the evil one. 4. Peace 
and truth are in the kingdom of God. 5. They were glorifying his 
power and wisdom. 6. For in that day we were preaching the gospel 
of the kingdom in the synagogue, and casting out devils. 7. You saw 
her sons in the house. 8. We received them into the boat. 9. Ye 
were in the temple in those days. 10. This is life eternal. 11. We 
heard the voice of the angel from the trees. 12. They were holy and 
beloved. 13. Their children were in the assembly. 14. Thou wast 
reading the scripture to them in the synagogue. 15. The Jews used 
to slay his prophets. 16. The Baptist himself used to baptise his 
disciples. 



LESSON XIII 

THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE PKESENT AND IMPEEFECT 
INDICATIVE 

A verb is said to be in the Active Voice when its subject is spoken 
of as p,cting ; it is said to be in the Passive Voice when its subject is 
spoken of as suffering, or being acted upon. 

Examples : Active " I love," " I was striking." 

Passive "I am loved," "I was being struck." 



28 



THE INDICATIVE PASSIVE 



N.B. Only Transitive verbs can have a Passive voice. There are 
certain verbs such as " I fall," " I slip," etc. which do not speak of the 
subject as acting, but which are regarded as Active verbs because they 
are Intransitive. 

The Passive voice is formed in Greek, as in Latin, by the use of 
special endings, and not by the use of the Auxiliary verb " to be " as in 
English. 

The Passive voice of the Present and Imperfect Indicative of \va is 
given below. Note that the Imperfect Passive has the Augment. 

Present Indicative Passive 

Sing. I. Xvofuu I am loosed, or I am being loosed. 

2. Xiei, or Xir/ Thou art loosed, or thou art being loosed. 

3. XicTM He is loosed, or he is being loosed. 

1. \v6iie6a We are loosed, or we are being loosed. 

2. \iea-6e You are loosed, or you are being loosed. 

3. \vovTai They are loosed, or they are being loosed. 



Plur. 



Imperfect Indicative Passive 

Sing. 1. eXvofiriv I was being loosed. 

2. eXvov Thou wast being loosed. 

3. fXiero He was being loosed. 

Plur. 1. iXvo/ieSa We were being loosed. 

2. eXvea-Be Tou were being loosed. 

3. eXvovTo They were being loosed. 



'I was 



Note. As in the case of the active voice a simple Past tense ' 
loosed " etc. will often sufficiently translate the Imperfect. 

The Present and Imperfect Indicative Passive of verbs in ea are 
conjugated as follows : 

Present Indicative Passive 



(j>i.\oviiai 


for (j>i\eofiai 


I am loved, or I am being loved. 


(jiiKei, ^1X3 


for fpiKeeif <I>l\€7j 


etc. 


(^tXflrai 


for (jjiKeeTM 




(jjiXovfieda 


for (^(Xfd/xeda 




(jjiKcla-Be 


for (jjiXeea-Be 




(piKovvrai 


for <l>iXfQVTai 





AGENT AND INSTRUMENT 29 

Imperfect Indicative Passive 



e<j)L\ov[jirjv 


for etpCKeofajv 


I was being loved. 


f(j>i\ov 


for icfyiXiov 


etc. 


ecjuXeiTO 


for i(f>iK4eT0 




£(j>iKoinf6a 


for i^iKeofxeda 




f<j)i\eia-6e 


for i<pCKifa-6e 




f<j)lXoVVTO 


for €<J)lX€OVTO 





Consider the sentences : 

"The angel looses the apostle." 
6 ayye\os Xuet tov aTToa-ToXov. 
"The apostle is loosed by the angel." 
d djToiTToXos \v€Tai viro tov ar/yeKov. 
Both these sentences express the same idea, but they express it in 
diflferent ways. It will be noticed that when a sentence with a verb in 
the active voice is turned into a sentence with a verb in the passive 
voice, as has been done in the sentences given above, the object of the 
first sentence " the apostle " becomes the subject of the second, while 
the subject of the first sentence "the angel" is introduced in English 
by the preposition " by." 

Consider the sentence : 

"The world is kept by the wisdom of God." 
6 Koafios rr)pelrai rfj <ro<j}ia tov deov. 

It will be seen that the form of this sentence is the same in English 
as that of the second sentence given above. 

In Greek however the sentences are not the same in form, but the 
preposition in-o followed by a Genitive is used in the one sentence, 
and a simple Dative in the other. 

This is because the doer of the action in the first sentence is a 
living person, i.e. " the angel " ; but the thing that does the action in 
the second sentence is not a living person, but " wisdom." 

In sentences similar to the first of these two sentences the doer of 
the action is spoken of as the Agent, because it is a living thing. 

In sentences similar to the second sentence the doer of the action 
is spoken of as the Instrument, because it is not a living thing. 

This distinction must be carefully observed. 

The same distinction exists in Latin where the Agent is expressed 
by "a" with the Ablative, and the Instrument by the Ablative alone. 



30 AGENT AND INSTRUMENT. PREPOSITIONS 

RULE 

In Greek the Agent of the action of a Passive verb is 
expressed by vv6 with the Genitive : the Instrument is expressed 
by the Dative alone'. 

Active verbs may also be followed by a word denoting the instru- 
ment. 

Example : He kills the apostle with a sword. 
dnoKTeivfi tov aTTOiTToXov fia)(^aipa. 

The same verb may have both an Agent and an Instrument. 

Example : The apostle is loosed by the angel by a word. 
6 diToa-ToXos \verat inro tov ayyeXov Xoytp. 

The Prepositions 8td and /xci-a may be followed by a noun or 
pronoun either in the Accusative or Genitive case. 

The student should here refer to the Appendix on prepositions 
on p. 154. The preposition vpos is generally followed by an Accu- 
sative case, and the preposition vtto by a Genitive case. For the 
meanings of these prepositions see the vocabulary. 

Exercise 13 

Learn Vocabulary 9. 

1. cVe/iTTCo'^e viro rav bL^aaKoKav Trpbs erepov oxXov, 2. iv TovTa 
Ta TOTTft) iBeapovfiev Tols oCJidaXpois tov Kvpwv Tatv ovpavatv. 3. o^Toi ol 
\6yoi iXoKovvTO vno TOiV aTrocrrdXajv irpos Toiis irpetr^vTepovs. 4. eitdiis 
8e Ta Trpo^ara (rvvrjy€TO Xidots vtto Tatv Xr](rT5tv. 5. dne(rTeW6p.^da jMSTa 
t5>v 7rpo<j)TjTav dia tov o^ov. 6. dta tovto iireidov Tols Tatv Kpiratv 
Xoyoif. 7. /xera Tavra ol Tfkatvai eSiddaKOVTo p€Ta twv veavtStv virb Tav 
irpea^vrlpayv. 8. ol vio\ tov oiKoBetTTTOTOv ^trOiov tovs dpTovs. 9. St 
viroKpird, ov irfpiirdTUS iv tols oSoIr tov Kvpiov. 10. 6 6p6vos eVoieiTO. 
V7rh Tatv epyaTotv Trj otKta tov Kvpiov ev lepovaaXrjp.. 11. ol epyaTiu 
direaTeWov tovs KapTToiis Trjs yrjs irpos tovs olKodeffwoTas. 12. St *Upov- 
(ToKfin, ov)( fvpta-Kfi TrKTTTj. 13. irapcKoXoviifSa Tois \6yois Tatv padjjTav 
iv (Keivco ™ xpova). 14. rjyop,iv tcl tikvo 8ia tov Upov. 15. per' cKeivai 
Tas rjpepas ol XyaTOi virriyov Trpbs ti}v eprjpov. 

1. The word of God was being preached by the apostles. 2. These 
fruits were sent by the householder to the elders. 3. On this account 
the judges were being persuaded by the faithful teachers. 4. Thou 
wast leading the people through the wilderness to Jerusalem. 5. After 

' This rule is not always strictly observed in the N.T. 



DEPONENTS. THE IMPERATIVE 31 

this they were being sought for by the crowd. 6. They were wicked 
in the eyes of the Lord. 7. The throne was being carried by the 
workmen to another place through the house. 8. Immediately the 
elders went with the prophets through Jerusalem. 9. The world 
was made through the Son of God. 10. O thou hypocrite, thou dost 
not keep the commandments of the Lord. 11. The young men were 
being taught by their own teachers. 12. Thou art not sent by the 
sons of the prophets. 13. Therefore immediately after these things 
we preached the word of God to the disciples. 14. Ye were being 
roused by the words of the householder. 

LESSON XIV 

DEPONENT VERBS. THE PRESENT IMPERATIVE. 
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 

Deponent verbs are verbs which have the form of the Passive voice 
in Greek, but which are translated by a verb in the Active voice in 
English. They are called "Deponent" because the old grammarians 
considered that they had "laid aside" (Latin "deponere") a Passive 
sense, and assumed an Active. 



Examples : 


diroKptvofiat 


I answer. 




apxoji.ai 


I begin. 




epxoftm 


I go. 




8€;^o/iat 


I receive. 



The Imperative Mood. Moods are forms which verbs assume to 
show the way in which the action or state denoted by the verb is to be 
regarded, i.e. if it is to be regarded as a statement of fact, a command, 
a wish, or a thought. 

All the forms of verbs, which have been given so far, have been in 
the Indicative mood, that is the mood which is generally used in 
making statements, or asking questions. 

The Imperative mood, the forms of which are given below, is used 
to express commands, exhortations and entreaties. 

The forms given in this section are those of the Present tense of 
the Imperative mood. 

Present Imperative Active Present Imperative Passive 

Sing. 2. \vc loose (thou). 2. \vov be loosed (thou). 

Plur. 3. XueVo) let him loose. 3. Xvia-da let him be loosed. 



32 THE PKESENT IMPERATIVE 

Present Imperative Active Present Imperative Passive 

Plur. 2. XvfTf loose (ye). 2. XvctrOe be loosed (ye). 

3. Xviraia-av let them loose. 3. \vfa-6aa-av let them be loosed, 
or Xv6vT(ov or \vfa8a>v 

The Present Imperative of verbs in fa is as follows : 
Present Imperative Active 



<j)l\€l 


for <^iX€e love (thou) 


(^(Xc/ro) 


for (fnXefToa etc. 


(^tXftre 


for <pCKieTe 


(j)i\flT(o<rav 


for <l)LK€fTioarav 


or cl}t\ovvTav 


or (j>i\e6vTci>v 


Present Imperative Passive 


<l)i\ov 


for ^iXeov be loved (th 


<piXf'ur6a> 


for ipiKeea^eo) etc. 


(jiiKela-Be 


for <pCKU(r6e 


(jiiXeia-diatTav 


for (piXeeirBcoaav 


or (ju\fia-6a>v 


or KpiKeeirBav 



The meaning of the Present Imperative. The Present tense in 
Greek in moods other than the Indicative denotes Oontinuous action, 
action In Progress, or Repeated action rather than action in present' 
time. 

Just as the Imperfect tense denotes a continued or repeated action 
in past time so the Present Imperative denotes a command or entreaty, 
to continue to do an action, or to do it repeatedly. 

It is not always possible to bring this out in translating a Present 
Imperative into English, as we have no convenient form of expression 
which is equivalent to it. An attempt to express in full the force of the 
Greek Present Imperative is made in the translation of the examples 
given below. This subject will be treated more fully when we come to 
deal with the Aorist Imperative. 

A verb in the Imperative mood is negatived by fir/, and not by oi. 
Examples of the use of the Present Imperative : 
Keep on throwing the stones. 
jSaXXere Toits XlBovs. 

Do not keep on answering the master. 
p,)) dnoKpiveadf ra SidacrKoKm. 
Let them keep on sending bread for the prophet. 
irefMirovTOv apTOU ra 7rpo(f>rjrjf. 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 



33 



Let him continue to keep the commandments. 
TripeiTO) Tas ivToKds. 

Do not walk ifi the ways of wickedness any longer. 
jXTj TTopevov ev rais 68ols rrjs aStnias. 



The Relative Pronoun 

The Relative Pronoun is declined as follows : 











Singular 






Masc. 


Pem. 


Neut. 


Maec. Fem. 


Neut. 


N. 


or 


1 


o 


who, or that 


which 


A. 


or 


V" 





whom, or that 


which 


G. 


oi5 


^s 


oS 


whose, or of whom 


of which 


D. 


V 


V 


« 


to whom 
Plural 


to which 


N. 


0( 


ai 


a. 


who, or that 


which 


A. 


ef 

ous 


Sis 


& 


whom, or that 


which 


G, 


Sv 


Sv 


hv 


whose, or of whom 


of which 


D. 


oh 


ah 


OLS 


to whom 


to which 



Notice that the Relative Pronoun is the same in form as the endings 
of the 2nd and 1st declensions with rough breathings added. 

The accentuation should be noticed and learnt and compared with 
that of the Article. 

Note the difference between o the Nom. and Ace. Sing, Neut. of 
the Relative and o the ,Nom. Sing. Masc. of the Article. 

Compare also 17 and ij 

01 and 01 
ai and ai 

The Relative Pronoun always refers back to some noun or pronoun 
in another clause which is called its Antecedent. 

In Greek Relative Pronouns agree with their antecedent in number 
and gender, but Not in case. 

The case of a Relative Pronoun depends on the function which it 
performs in the clause in which it stands, which is sometimes called a 
Relative Clause. 

KT 3 



34 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

Examples : 

1. I see the men who are coming, 
jSXcTTQ) Tovs dvdpanovs oi epxovrat. 

2. The men that you are sending are going away. 
oi avBpairot ots (TTeWere direp^^ovrat. 

3. This is the writing that is kept in the synagogue. 
avTT] effTiv fj ypa<j)T] ^ TTjpeiTai ev Ttj avfayaytj. 

4. This is the writing which the apostle used to have. 
avTTj itrrXv rj ypa<l>rj 7jv ft-x^v 6 aTrotrroXos. 

5. The children whom I was teaching are going away. 
Ta TraiSla a edlddaKov 'aTrtpx^Tai. 

6. The prophet whose books thou art reading is holy, 
o rr po<j)TiTris oi dvayivaxTKeis ra /3(/3Xia dyios etrriv. 

7. The men for whom I am doing this are slaves. 
oi avdpojirot ots noia) ravra 8ov\ot eltrtv* 

In example 1 dv6pi)novs is in the Accusative case because it is the 
object of the clause in which it stands, oj is in the Nominative case 
because it is the subject of the clause in which it stands. 

The student should carefully consider the reason for the cases of the 
Relative Pronouns in the other examples in the same way. 

Sections 8 and 10 in the Appendix on English grammar should 
be read in connexion with this lesson. 

The Relative clauses in the examples given above are all Adjectival 
clauses, because they qualify and explain their antecedents just like 
adjectives, 

Exercise 14 

Learn Vocabulary 10. 

1. iiropevopeSa npos ttjv 6a\aor(Tav p,fTa T&v liadrjrav, 2. rjpvoiivto 
TOP Kvpiov TTJs 86^s bs rijpei avTois dvo tov novrjpov. 3. eScxea-Bt' 
TOVS dypois ots eix^v 6 Xabs 'la-parjX. 4. jifi diroKpivov tm Seo-wdrj. 
5. drrfipxovTO irpbs tt)v eprjpov ev ^ 6 'ladvrjs e/3d7rTife. 6. dwfKpi- 
vd/mjv 7-oiy dyyeXois oJ rjpxovTO dno t&v irpeo-^vTepav. 7. pj) epyd^ttrSe 
Tfjv dbiKtav. 8. ovToi Sf^*''"'" '"'"^r ApapraiXovs oi epxovTai npos avTon 
Koi io-6lti ptT abrSjv. 9. airrov T&V Kf<j}aXSiv T&v waiSiav & ntpno, 
10. ol SoiXoi ots eSfX^TO epya^ovTai ev toIs dypois. 11. dirotrreXXoVTM. 



PRESENT INFINITIVES 35 

TO ifidrta a Xaji^avovaiv fls tov oIkov. 12, be^^cda to ^i^Kiov o ypa(j)ci 
6 airoaToXos. 13. 8irjp^6i£e6a ovv Toiis dypavs airaiv fierd tcov reXaivav, 
14. KHKOl KOI ■KOVTjpoX bovkoi ^Te. 15. &VTi<r6<oiTav tS>v Xtdav TOV 
iepov o aKoSopeiTO t£ Kvpia. 

1. Let the love of the brethren remain in their hearts. 2. Keep 
the holy commandments which you receive from the teachers. 3. Do 
not deny the Lord of glory who saved yovi from the evil world. 4. Let 
the elders whom they send receive the law for the people. 5. We were 
going through the fields in which the slaves were working. 6. After 
these things they built a temple to the God of Israel. 7. Do not 
walk (pi.) in the way of sinners. 8. Let him receive the messengers 
who proclaim the kingdom of heaven. 9. The disciples whom John 
was baptising remained in the wilderness. 10. Let them work the 
works of him that sent them. 11. For the prophet receives the sinners 
who are sent to him and eats with them. 12. Do not answer the 
teacher. 13. After those days they went away into the place in which 
the young men were remaining with the sheep. 14. This is the elder 
whose children were reading the books of the law which the prophet 
wrote. 

LESSON XV 

THE PRESENT INFINITIVE. 
PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

The Present Infinitives are as follows : 
Present Infinitive Active Present Infinitive Passive 

\veiv to loose \iea-dai to be loosed 

<j>iKiiv to love (/)i\«o-flat to be loved 

fivai to be 
The so-called Infinitive Mood is really, both in Greek and English, 
the Dative case of a verbal noun. In many of its uses however its 
Dative sense is quite forgotten, and it is treated exactly as if it were 
in indeclinable verbal noun. It is always neuter. The Infinitive 
Dartakes of the nature both of a verb and a noun. As a verb it has a 
lubjeot expressed or understood, and it may have an object ; it is 
qualified by adverbs, and has tense and voice. As a, noun it may 
itand as the subject or object of another verb. 

3—2 



36 THE INFINITIVE 

Infinitive used as a Subject. The Infinitive is especially common 
as the subject of an Impersonal verb or of ecrri. As it is a verbal 
noun and therefore partakes of the nature of a verb, it may have a 
subject of its own. If this subject is expressed it is put in the 
AocuSAirvB case. 
Examples : 

To err is human. 
n-apa/SaiVew dv6pajrtv6v iari. 
It is lawful to heal on the Sabbath, 
effort dtpanevciv iv ra (ra^^arif. 
It was necessary for him to pass through Samaria. 
€&ei avTov SiipxeirBai Bia rrjs Safuipias. 
It is good for us to be here. 
Ka\6v i<TTiv fifias etvai fSde. 
Notice that in the English of the last three examples the word " it" 
is placed first as a sort of preparatory subject, the real subjects of the 
three sentences are however the Infinitives " to heal," " to pass," " to 
be here,'' as will be seen if the sentences are written in the following 
form; 

To heal on the Sabbath is lawful. 
To pass through Samaria was necessary for him. 
To be here is good for us. 
In the last two examples the subjects of the Infinitives airov and 
^/iSs are expressed in Greek in the Accusative case. 
Note that in English these words are in the Dative. 
The verb e^eari is however followed by a noun or pronoun in the 
Dative case to express the person to whom the action is lawful. 
Example : 

It is lawful for us to heal on the Sabbath. 
e^eaTiv fffiiv depairevetv iv tc5 (ra^^arai. 

Infinitive used as Object. Any verb whose action naturally 
implies another action or state as its object may take an Infinitive' 
as its object. Such verbs are generally the same in Greek as in 
English. They are sometimes called "Modal Verbs." 
Examples: They wish to remain. 

^oiXovrai Kara/iiveiv. 
We are willing to hear. 
■ 6i\optv aKOvciv, 




IN FINAL CLAUSES 37 

I am able to do this. 
bwajxai TOVTO TToieiv, 
They began to build. 
rjpXOVTO olicohojieiv. 
After verbs meaning "to entreat," "to exhort," "to command," 
a' verb in the Infinitive mood is used as the direct object, while a 
noun or pronoun in an Accusative, Genitive, or Dative case is used 
with it as the indirect object of the main verb. If the subject of the 
Infinitive is expressed it is in the Accusative case. 
Examples : 

He commanded them to bring Paul. 

EKcXcuev avTovs ayeiv rbv IlavKov. 

I beseech thee to heal my son. 

deofiai trov Sepaireveiv rov vlov fiov* 

He charged them not to depart from Jerusalem. 

TaprjyyeWev avTois fifj virdyuv otto 'lepoffoXu/Kav. 

Example of an Infinitive with its subject expressed : 
He commands Paul to be brought. 
KcXeuei Tov HavKov SyetrOai, 

All clauses which stand as the subject or object of a verb are called 
Substantival Clauses. 

The Infinitive used in Final clauses. As has been already stated 
the Infinitive is really the Dative case of a verbal noun. 

It may therefore be used not only as the verb in a Substantival 
Clause but also as the verb in an Adverbial Clause expressing Purpose. 
Such clauses are called Final Clauses. 

The Infinitive is used in Final clauses on the same principle that 
a noun in the Dative case is used in English to express purpose. 
Example : He went to the market for corn. 
And so both in Greek and English the Infinitive is used to express 
Purpose. 
Examples : 

He sent his slaves to call the prophets. 

dTreoreXXe roiis SoiXovs KoKeiv tovs 7rpo0i)Tas. 

John used to go to the Jordan to baptise the disciples. 

d 'la>di'>;r ^pxero n-pbs tok ^lophamjv fiairn^eiv tovs fiaBrfras. 



38 PERSONAL AND 

The negative used with the Infinitive in the New Testament is 
almost always /irj. 

Summary. The Infinitive is used in Substantival Clauses as 
being a Verbal Noun. 

The Infinitive is used in Final Clauses as being the Dative Case 
of a verbal noun. 

Personal and Possessive Pronouns 

The Personal Pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons are as follows : 
Singular 





Ist 


person 


2nd 


person 


N. 


fycB 


I N. V. 


(TV 


thou 


A. 


e>e', /ie 


me A. 


a-e 


thee 


G. 


ifiov, /lov 


of me, my G. 


crov 


of thee, thy 


D. 


eftot, fwi 


to me D. 
Plural 


<Toi 


to thee 


N. 


fiiifls 


we N. V. 


v/iels 


you 


A. 


fiiiis 


us A. 


vfias 


you 


G. 


fifiav 


of us, our G. 


viiSni 


of you, your 


D. 


Tj/i'lU 


to us D. 


VfUV 


to you 



As has been already mentioned, all cases of alros] are used in the 
New Testament as the Personal Pronoun of the 3rd person "he, she, 
it," etc. ovTos and iKftvos are also sometimes used as Personal Pro- 
nouns. 

Examples: He is the way, the truth and the life. 
ot/Tos €(rTiu rj oSor, fj dX-qSeia koi fj (a>fj. 
But he was teaching in the temple. 
eKclvos 8e eSidaiTKev iv Tffl Upw. 

The Nominative case of the Article followed by jueV and hi is often 
used as a Personal Pronoun of the 3rd person. 

Examples: But he was sending him away. 
6 8f airifTTcKKev airrov. 
But they departed into the wilderness. 
01 8e vnriyov els rfiv iipr]ft,ov. 

jiAv followed by 6 S4 must be translated by " One... another." 



. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 39 

01 fiiv followed by oi fit must be translated "Some... others." 
Examplej Some remained, but others were going away. 

01 fitv efievov, oi bk aiTr)p^ovTO. 
As the personal ending of the verb is generally sufficient to show 
what person and number the subject is, the Nominative'case of the 
Personal Pronouns is not used except for emphasis. 
Example: Thou art a slave, but I am free. 

(TV fiev €1 8ov\os, eyw he eXevdepos. 
The Possessive Pronouns are : 



e>os 

(TOS 


my, or mine 
thy, or thine 


fiiihepos 


our, or ours 


vpeTfpos 


your, or yours 



They are generally equivalent to the possessive Genitive of the 
Personal Pronoun. 

Examples: My lord, 6 ip.6s nipios, 6 Kvpios /lov. 

Our lord, 6 ifiiirepos Kvpios, 6 xvptos fifiav. 

Note that when a noun is qualified by a Possessive Pronoun, or the 
Genitive of a Personal Pronoun, it has an Article before it. 

The Genitive singular of airos is used in the place of a Possessive 
Pronoun of the third person singular to translate "his, hers, its"; and 
the Genitive plural of the same word is used to translate " their.'' 

Exercise 15 

Learn Vocabulary 11. 

1. ifiovXnvTO axaveiv Toiis Xdyouf ots eXoKei 6 'iritrovs. 2. SiSao'KaXf, 
KoXov i<rnv fip-as &Sf etvai. 3. eSiovro oSv alrov dfpamveiv tovs viois 
avrav. 4. ovtos apx^TM oiKoSo/ieiv, aXK' oi SvvOTai iroietv to tpyov. 
5. Sfi vpas dTTOKpiuea-Bai tols 7rpea-^VTepoi.s. 6. KfXfuoi) ae e§epxe<T6ai 
f K r^s olxias. 7. e^ea-rtv ijplv Krjpvcra-eiv rrfv ^aa-iKeiav t&v oipavav. 
8. fjre/iTTfv Toiis SovXovs avTov KoKftv TOVS nTcoxovs Koi tovs TvtjAovs els 
Tov yifiov. 9. irapriyyeKXev avTols ayeiv tov TlaiiKov. 10. o yap debs 
n-f'uTTfi TOV viov avTov aa^fiu tov KOirpov. 11. napeKokovv avTOvs oi 
irpo(t>TiT(U pivfiv €V TJj dXrjBeia. 12. oi yap diXfTf fpxfirSai npos pe. 

13. 6 ovv 'Irjo-ovs fjyeTO (Is Tr)V eprjpov ireipd^ea-Bai viro tov Sia^oKov. 

14, 01 paBriTol rjpxovTo npos tov 'lopSdvrjv opoXoyelv Tas ipaprias avTmv 



40 THE FUTURE INDICATIVE 

r^ 'laavfi. 15. cKcXevojUcv roiis dyyeXour neiiirtirdat. 16. o oe ouk 
^dfXev wopeieirdai ev rais oSois Tov Kvpiov. 17. tyw <rc kcXcvco CKei 
liivciv, ail 8e oIk vnaKoveis. 18. oi /lev ^trav SoCXoi ol 8e e\fv6epou 
19. naptKoKovfiev tov "Kaov vwaKOVciv Tois Trpo4>j]Tais. 

1. We must not deny the Lord of glory (use 8el). 2. They were 
not willing to obey the elders'. 3. It is lawful for them to receive the 
money from the publicans. 4. I am a man, but you are children. 
5. "We wish to see the temple of the God of Israel. 6. We are sending 
the slaves to call the blind and the poor to the marriage. 7. It is bad 
for them to be there. 8. It was necessary for Jesus to pass through 
Samaria to proclaim the Gospel to the people. 9. We commanded the 
prophet to be brought. 10. I besought him to heal my child, but he 
would not. 11. Jesus commanded them to send the blind man. 
12. I am not able to exhort them to remain in Jerusalem. 13. There- 
fore they began to confess their sins to us. 14. Some went to their 
houses and others to the temple. 15. We are free, but you are slaves. 

16. Jesus is led into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 

17. We came to John to be baptized by him in the Jordan. 18. They 
are not able to do this. 19. I sent the messenger to you, but he was 
not willing to depart. 20. We must work the works of him that sent 
us (use 8fi). 21. They wish to read the books which thou hast. 



LESSON XVI 

THE FUTURE INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND MIDDLE. 
THE MIDDLE VOICE 

The Future Indicative Active is generally formed in Greek by 
putting (T at the end of the stem of the verb, and then adding the 
endings of the Present Indicative Active. 

The Future Middle is generally formed by putting o- at the end of 
the stem of the verb and then adding the endings of the Present 
Indicative Passive. 

The meaning of the Middle voice will be explained below. 

' Dat. case. 



ACTIVE AND MIDDLE 



41 



The Future Active and the Middle of Xiito " I loose " are as follows : 
Active Middle 

Xuo-ffl I shall loose, etc. Xia-oum I shall loose (for my 

Xva-fis \i(rei, Xva-rj own benefit), etc. 



\va-et 

XvirofjLev 

Xucrere 

\V(T0V(TI, 



Xvo 

\v(r6fie0a 

Xvaecrde 

XlKFOVTai 



Future Infinitive Active 
Xva-eiv To be about to loose 



Future Infinitive Middle 
Xvaea-Sai To be about to loose (for 
one's own benefit) 
Note that each of these forms is made up of the stem of the verb, 
the <r, and the appropriate ending of the Present tense. 

If the stem of the verb ends in a consonant, this consonant 
combines with the a- which is added to it to form the endings of the 
Futxire in the manner shown below. 

If the stem of the verb ends in a guttural letter it, y, Xt it joins 
with the (T and makes ^. 



Examples : 



Present 



Future Act. 



OKOKta 

dvoiyai 
apxa 



Act. 

Mid. 



I pursue 
I open 
I rule 
I begin 
I have 



dvoi§a> 
ap^a 



Future Mid. 

dvQi^ofiai 
ap^ofiai 



exa 1 nave «|q> (but observe the rough 

breathing) 
If the stem of the verb ends in a labial letter ir, /3, <(>, it joins with 
the a- and makes yjf. 

Examples : » 

Present Future Act. Future Mid. 

jSXettoj I see /SXc'i^m ^Xei/^o/iai 

ypa<t>(0 I write •ypo\//'0) ypayjfO/iai 

ncfJLtro) I send jrefn^m ire/ii/ro/iai 

If the stem of the verb ends in a dental letter r, 8, 6, it is dropped 

before the <r of the Future. 

Examples : 

Present Future Act. Future Mid. 

neiOo) I persuade wiiirat TTcliTopm 



42 THE MIDDLE VOICE 

Verbs in ea lengthen the e to ?; before adding the endings of the 
Future Tense. 

Examples : 

Present Future Act. Future Mid. 

aireo) I ask aiT^cra) airrjiTOfiai, 

fijreo) I seek C^Tr)<ra CriTTja-oiiai 

The Future tense of flfii is as follows : 

torofiai I shall be, etc. 

etret, ecnj 

ttrrai 

eaovTOi 

The Middle voice. The Middle voice generally denotes that the 
subject is acting upon himself, or in some way that concerns himself, 
but often it is not distinguished from the Active voice in meaning. 

Many verbs have no Future Active forms, but only Future Middle. 

These Futures Middle are " deponent " and have exactly the same 
meaning as if they were active. 

The Middle voice of the Present tense is the same in form as the 
Passive voice. 

Exercise 16 

Learn Vocabulary 12. 

1. ovK a5iK^O"ou(rt rot reKva, 2. oi be evdva-ovari ra IfiaTia. 3. dvoi^eL 
rovs 6(l>Ba\fiovs rav TV<l>Katv ot (Tvudyovrai iv TJj a-vvaywy^, 4. neiaofitv 
Toi/s epydras epyd^caSat iv Tols dypois- 5. nefi^j^o) irpos avTovs trot^vs 
Km wpotpTjras, dW* ovk aKovtrovtriv avToi/s ol viol l(rparj\. 6. cKelvos 
earai ayms ra Kvpia. 7. Sphere rav '\ovhaiaiv o\ KOTOiKOvai eKfiViji' Tr\v 
yr^v. 8. 7rpo<pTjTeva'€is tu Xac5 TovT<fi Kai viraKovtrovtri (rot. 9. 8taicovr]a'€Tf 
Tols i)(Bpois vp,S>v OTi OVK TjSeXfTf vnaKOveiv fioi, dXX' eya eXeij(ro> i/iSs en 
CKeivrj Tij Tjpipa. 10. KaToiKTitTopev Toiis dypoiis tS>v e'xBpSiv ols fiiijKoi/oi/jfK 
OTi OVK rjKovofiev tov \6yov tov Kvplov. 11. ol BiaKOVOi ttjs OTJi/aycoy^s ov 
8ta}^ov(rt Tovs X^oras ev ra a-a^^dra. 12. cuXo-yeircocrai' ttjv 86^av tov 
deov ItrparjX, 13. trep'^opev Toi/s veavlas KaroiKelv t^v y^v. 14. ot 
TTpea-^vrepoL e^oviTLTa npS^ara A tra^erai aTTorau €)(dpa)V. 15. dp^ofifSa 
€v\oye2v rovs viovs t&v wpotjjrjr&v. 



THE TWO STEMS OF VERBS 43 

1. I will open the books which are in the synagogue. 2. They 
shall be just and faithful in that day, and I will bless them because 
they hear my voice. 3. "We shall behold the face of the Lord in the 
temple which is built in Jerusalem. 4. The Lord will have mercy 
upon them because they dwell in the land of their enemies, and he 
will lead them into their own land. 5. Jesus therefore began to send 
the apostles to proclaim the Gospel to the house of Israel. 6. We will 
send the slaves to pursue the robbers. 7. Peace and truth shall dwell 
in our land because we obey the commandments of the Lord. 8. He 
will speak these things to the multitudes in parables. 9. I shall be 
first, but thou wilt be last. 10. Do not praise the wicked, for the 
wicked shall not dwell in our land. 



LESSON XVII 

THE TWO STEMS OF VERBS. 
THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN. QUESTIONS 

Greek verbs are not divided into conjugations with different endings 
like Latin verbs. 

All the verbs in to have the .same endings : the differences between 
them are caused by variations in the stem. 

The verbs which are given as examples in the last exercise (except 
Treidio) and also those in the vocabulary have but one stem : but many 
verbs have at least two stems : — 

(1) The Verbal stem from which all the tenses with the exception 
of the Present and Imperfect are generally formed. 

(2) The Present stem from which the Present and Imperfect 
tenses are formed. 

The fact that the meanings of verbs are given in dictionaries under 
the form of the Present Indicative tends to fix attention upon it, and 
to produce the impression that it is the original and most important 
form of the verb. This is however not the case. The present stem is 
really derived from the verbal stem, and is generally a lengthened 
form of the verbal stem. 

The verbal stem is the most important part of the verb ; nouns 



44 



THE VERBAL STEM 



and adjectives of kindred meaning are formed from it, and not from 
the present stem. 



Examples : 






Verbal stem 


Present 


Derived word 


KTIpVK 


Kqpv(TO-a> 


Krjpv^ a herald 


paS 


fiavBdva 


paBrjTTjs a disciple 


<j>vy 


(jieiya 


(jjvyri flight 



Some of the ways in which the verbal stem is modified so as to form 
the present stem are classified below. 

(1) Verbs which add t to the verbal stem in order to form the 
present stem : 



Examples : 








Stem 


Present 


Future 


Meaning 


KaXvir 


d-jroKoKvirTOJ 


diroKaKinjfd) I reveal 


KOir 


(KKOTTTCO 


fKKoyjra) 


I cut down 


KpVTT 


Kpiirrm 


Kpiyjfo) 


I hide 


(2) Verbs in 


which the verbal stem ends in a guttural which ia 


softened to aa to form the present stem. 




Examples : 








Stem 


Present 


Future 


Meaning 


K1]pVK 


Kfipva-a-a 


Krjpi^O) 


I proclaim 


wpay 


■irpa(T<Ta 


irpd^a 


I do 


ray 


Td(rtr<a 


rd^a 


I set in order 


(fivXaK 


(jivXda-a-a 


(f)v\d^ta 


I guai-d 


(3) Verbs ending in feu in 


the Present 


: these are formed from 


stems ending in 


8 or y. The former make their Futures in ercn and 


the latter in ^a. 








Examples : 








Stem 


Present 


Future 


Meaning 


cXttiS 


fXTTlfo) 


eXiriaa 


I hope 


Kpay 


Kpd^a 


Kpd^a 


I cry 



The majority of verbs in fu form their futures like iKwi^a. 
The following are some of the most important : 

dyiafd) I sanctify iroipA^ia I make ready 

dyopd^a I buy Bavpd^a I wonder 

iSoTTTifo) I baptise Kadapi^a I cleanse 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. ai/Vo? 45 

Pao-Tofw I carry n-etpafm I try or tempt 

Sofafo) I glorify a-KavSdKi^ai I cause to stumble 

eyyi^a I draw near am^a) I save 

ipyd^ojxai I work 
Observe that in all the verbs given above the Future is formed 
from the verbal stem in accordance with the rules given on p. 41. 

Reflexive Pronouns are used when the subject and object of a 
sentence or clause refer to the same person or thing. 
The forms which occur in the New Testament are : 
e/iavTou myself 

a-eavTov thyself 

iavTou {airov) himself 
iavrrjv (^avTrjv) herself 

eavTo (avTo) itself 

iavTovs ourselves, yourselves, themselves 

As we have already seen, airos, -ij, -o, means "he, she, it" when it 
stands alone, and " self" when it is joined to a noun or pronoun. 

When avTos is joined to, and immediately follows, an article it 
means "the same." The article and aurds are always in the same 
number, gender and case. 

Distinguish carefully between 

The same man. 
6 avTOS av6ptin:os. 
and The man himself. 

6 avOptairos avTos. 
Distinguish also between this last use of airos and the use of the 
Reflexive pronoun : 

The man himself says this. 
6 ("ivdpaTros airos \iyei, tovto. 
The man casts himself into the sea. 
d avBpaTros /SaXXei avrbv els Tr)V BaKcurcrav. 
TO. avrd contracted to Toira means " the same things.'' 

Questions 

Questions are expressed in Greek not by altering the order of the 
words in the sentence, but by placing the question mark ; at the end 
of the sentence. It will be noticed that this question mark is like an 



iQ QUESTIONS IN GREEK 

English semi-colon. The Greek colon is a single dot above the 
line • . 

Examples : 

They are doing this. 

VOlOVai TOVTO. 

Are they doing this? 

TTOIOVITL rOlTO ,* 

Exercise 17 

Learn Vocabulary 13. 

1. Kpvy\ro}ifv TO iraiblov ev tji oIkli}; 2. ovx^ ayiatrowi ra (ra^^ard 
fiov. 3. oi avTol HyyekoL eTotfiairovtnv eavToiis TTopeveaBai. 4. Kadapi^eTt 
€avrovS) viroKpiTai. 5. aTroicaXvylrfis ai/rois ttjv do^av rtjs (ro^tas. 6. e^erf 
^co^v ev eavTois. 7. cru yap rrpd^ets Tci aira, 8. ^Irjtrovs avTos ^yytfc 
Tois avTOLS p.aSi]TaLS. 9. rd^ovo'i tovs avroiis avSpanrovs ev tols dypois. 

10. aKavdoKltreTe Toiis dyiovs; 11. ayjreTai tov Ip-aTiov tov 7rpo<j>rjTov, 
12. TTopevao^ai irpos rrjv avrrjv oiKiav ; 13. dycd^fTe Tag KOpSlas vp.Sav 
TTJ dydirij rrjs a\ij6elas- 14. dTrd^ovo't. roi/s Xerrpoi/s diro tov Upoii. 
15. eKKoyj/eTe Ta 5iv8pa d iarTi iv eKcivrj Tjj yfj. 16. 6av}id<rei ttjv &6^av 
TOV Kvpiov. 

1. Ye shall set the books in order in the synagogue. 2. They will 
hope to behold the signs of the apostles. 3. We will draw near to hear 
the voice of the teacher. 4. The wicked man will do wicked things. 
5. Will he cleanse himself in the same lake ? 6. She will make herself 
ready to go. 7. I will cut down the trees that are in the field. 8. We 
will buy the same books for our children. 9. The Lord will guard 
the souls of his people. 10. We will begin to sanctify our hearts. 

11. The maiden will carry the loaves for the workmen. 12. They 
will hide themselves in the trees. 13. You will begin to wonder at 
the power of the elders. 14. We shall not reveal ourselves to them. 
15. Art thou willing to behold peace and righteousness in the kingdom 
of God ? 16. Shall we command them to read the Scriptures to the 
brethren ? 



THE FIRST AORIST ACTIVE 47 

LESSON XVIII 

THE FIRS.T AORIST ACTIVE 

The First Aorist is so called to distinguish it from the Second 
Aorist, a tense which has different endings, but practically always 
the same meaning. Very few verbs have both Aorists. 

The two Aorists may be compared in this respect with the strong 
and weak forms of the Past tense in English. Very few verbs in 
English have both a strong and a weak Past tense ; if they have, the 
meaning of the two forms is identical. 

Example: Present Strong Past Weak Past 
Beseech Besought Beseeched 

At present we are concerned only with the 1st Aorist; but whatever 
is said about the meaning of this tense applies equally to the 2nd Aorist. 
The name Aorist means unbounded or unlimited. The Aorist tense is 
used in Greek to denote that the action spoken of is to be regarded 
simply as an event, without any regard being taken of the length of 
time during which it has been going on. The Present and Imperfect 
tenses on the other hand emphasise the fact that the action spoken 
of is continuous or often repeated. In practice it will be sufficient 
for the present to translate the Aorist Indicative by the English Past 
Simple, and the Imperfect generally by the English Past Continuous, 
or Imperfect. 

Example : eXvov 1 was loosing, or I used to loose. 
fKvcra I loosed. 

This distinction should be carefully observed. 
The 1st Aorist of the verb \va is as follows : 



1st Aor 


. Ind. Act. 


1st Aor. 


Imper. Act. 


?Kv(Ta 

eXvaas 

TKv<rf 


I loosed, 
thou loosedst. 
he loosed. 


Xuerow 
XuoraTm 


loose (thou), 
let him loose. 


c\v(rafiev 

iXvvare 

eKva-av 


we loosed, 
you loosed, 
they loosed. 


Xvaare 

Xuo-aroxrai' 

XvtrdpTtav 


loose (ye). 

let them loose. 




1st Aorist Infinitive Act. : \v(rai. 



48 



THE FIRST AORIST ACTIVE 



As in the Future o- is inserted between the stem of the verb and the 
endings. The characteristic vowel of the tense is a. 

The a which is inserted before the endings of the 1st Aorist produces 
consonantal changes similar to those produced by the a- inserted before 
the endings of the Future. 

Examples : 



Present 


Future 


1st Aorist 


dtiuico) 


Sioa^ca 


fditd^a 


avoiyta 


dvoi^to 


dvitf^a^ 


Kripv(TiT(o 


Krjpi^ta 


i<r)pv^a 


Kpa^a 


Kpd^to 


txpa^a 


)3Xe5rii> 


/SXe'^m 


€P\f\jra 


ypa^oj 


ypd^tt) 


eypayjfa 


Kpiirra 


KpvyJAO) 


fKpvyjra 


n-etdo) 


irela-tt) 


fTreura 


eXn-t^D) 


eXiTia'ai 


^Xnura 


dytafo) 


ayia(ra> 


ffyiaiTa 


aireo> 


aLTTitrto 


fjrria-a 


kaXco) 


Ka\f<ra> ^ 


CKoXfO-a^ 



The above list should be carefully learnt. 



rj6i\ri(Ta^ 



The meaning of the Aorist Imperative 

The Aorist Imperative has no augment because it is not regarded 
as a past tense. The difference in meaning between it and the Present 
Imperative is that while the Present Impei-ative denotes a command 
or entreaty to Continue to do an action, to do it Habitually, the 
Aorist Imperative denotes a command or entreaty simply to do an 
action Without any Regard to its continuance or frequency. 

This difference of meaning is well seen in the parallel versions of a 
petition in the Lord's Prayer given in two of the Gospels. 

The verb used in the first is the Present Imperative of the verb 
SiSafii " I give," an irregular verb explained in lesson xxxil, the verb 
used in the second is the Aorist Imperative of the same verb. 

' This form is irregular, it has two augments. 

' Ka\^0! and its compounds do not lengthen the e before the endings of 
the Future and Ist Aorist like other verbs in eoi. 

3 Notice the peculiar form of the Future and 1st Aorist of ei\u. 



IMPEKATIVES. AOEIST INFINITIVE 49 

Give us (keep on giving us) day by day our daily bread. 
Tov apTov ^fjLWV Tov iiriovtTwv 8l8ov rffiiv to KaB* rjfiepav. 

Lk. xi. 3. 
Give to us this day our daily bread. 
TOV SpTov fifiav TOV iiriovcriov bos rifiiv arj/iepov. 

Mt. vi. 11. 
The Present Imperative denotes a continuous act of giving — day 
after day. The Aorist Imperative denotes a single act of giving — for 
to-day. 

Another good example is found in Jn ii. 16 : 

Take these things hence (single action), do not continue to make my 
Father's house a house of merchandise. 

apare^ TavTa evTevOev, pfj iroLdre tov oikov tov iraTpos p.ov oiKov 
(piropiov. 

The Aorist Infinitive 

The Aorist Infinitive differs in meaning from the Present Infinitive 
just in the same way as the Aorist Imperative differs in meaning from 
the Present Imperative. 

Its use denotes that the action denoted by the verb is to be regarded 
simply as an action happening at some time not defined, without any 
regard to its continuance or frequency. 

The use of the Present Infinitive denotes that the action denoted 
by the verb is to be regarded as continuous or repeated. 

The Aorist Infinitive is consequently used more frequently than 
the Present Infinitive in Greek : and the student should always use it 
unless there is some good reason to the contrary. 

It is Not confined to expressing action in past time like the Latin 
Perfect Infinitive, it has therefore no augment since it is not regarded 
as a past tense. 
Examples : 

To keefp on writing the same things is good for you. 

ypd<ji€LV Ta avTCL koXov eariv vpXv. (PreS. Inf.) 

I hope to write to you soon. 

eXiri'fo) ypdyjrai vfiiv Ta)(4a>s. (Aor. Inf.) 

1 apa.T€ is an Aorist Imperative. Its form will be explained in the next 
lesson but one. 

N. 4 



50 EXERCISES 

Exercise 18 

Revise Vocabularies 9-13. 

1. eSia^av roiis Xr/aras oi airrfyov to. npo^ara. 2. oi 8e Xejrpot 
iiriarfvaav ^ ra \6yto tov 'lij<roC. 3. ineiii^as roiis reXavas ayopdiTat xa 
laaria, 4. trattrov to upyvptov ano Twv X^arwi/. 5. craiff tov Xaov (rov 
diro TOV wovrjpov. 6. Ta^^drcacrai' ra |3i|3\ia f v ti5 icp^. 7. /ifTa Tavra 
eneitrapev aiiToi/s Kpvyjrai ra Tratdia. 8, CKaBapifrafitv eavrovs ev Ta 
iroTapa. 9. o bihaaKoKos airros iBavpaat ttju (To^'iav Tav paBrfraVi 
10. f7rop€V€TO 8ia Trjs yrjs €KKoyj/ai to, 8ev8pa. 11. 8ia tovto ov fici 
a-KavSdXi^fiv Toiis vwrovs. 12. /Sdorawoi' to wXoiov diro T^s daXairoi;c. 
13. dyidcraTe eavrovs, iyyi^ei yap rj rjpepa tou Kvpiov. 14. fxtXcvafv 
TOV Xf7rp6v 6 7rpo(t>riTris Kadapi(rai iavTOV ev rm 'lopddvj] iroTapa. 15. !] 
(jxovfi TOV 'ladvov expose iv tt/ fpi)p<f ' eTotpMO-arf tj)v oSov tdS Kvpia.' 

16. errjprjaapev Tas evToXds as rjKOvopev dno to)v dyuov drrotTToXav. 

17. KaXov iariv ■^pds irpdaaeiv rr/v hiKaioirvvrjv. 18. iiiovTo'^ avrov prj 
Trpd^ai eavTca kokov. 19. ptTa tovto oZv dvea^ev tovs 6(l>BaXpovs tov 
Tv<pXov. 20. eXnl^ets Setopelv tt}v bo^av twv dyyiXav, 21. ^ elprjvrj 
KaToiKijcraTW Tas xapSias vp&v. 22. TavTa yap jjffeXrjaav /SXc^at oi 
dyyeXoi. 

1. They baptised the publicans in the river. 2. You were going 
through the land to behold the houses and the people. 3. Hide the 
stones in the field. 4. Do not continue to offend the brethren (use the 
Pres. Imper.). H. Let them set the men in order. 6. You revealed 
the commandments and promises to the church. 7. Shall we begin to 
read the books ? 8. Cleanse your hearts, ye sinners, and confess your 
sins to the church. 9. Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath ? 10. Save 
thy people, Lord, from the wickedness of this world. 11. Make 
ready therefore to hide yourselves and your children in Jerusalem. 
12. Let love and righteousness dwell in yom- hearts. 13. He com- 
manded me to write these words in a book. 14. It is good for them 
to keep on reading the same things. 15. After this I will reveal my 
power to the children of Israel. 16. He wished to call the publicans 
to the marriage. 

' TTiffTeiioi is often followed by a Dative. 
^ This verb is not contracted. 



THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 



51 



LESSON XIX 

THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE. OBJECT CLAUSES AFTER 
VERBS OF SAYING, OR THINKING 

The Endings of the Second Aorist Indicative Active are the Same 
as those of the Imperfect Indicative Active. The Endings of the 
2nd Aorist Imperative Active are the Same as those of the Present 
Imperative Active. The Endings of the 2nd Aorist Infinitive Active 
are the Same as those of the Present Infinitive Active. 

The 2nd Aorist can only be distinguished from the Imperfect and 
the. Present Imperative and Infinitive by the Stem. 

The Imperfect and the Present Imperative and Infinitive are formed 
from the present stem. The 2nd Aorist Indicative, Imperative and 
Infinitive are formed from the verbal stem (see p. 43). 

There is no difference in meaning between a 1st and a 2nd Aorist' : 
few verbs have both. 

Take for example the verb ^dWa " I throw." 

Verbal Stem ^a\. Present Stem |3aXX. 





2nd Aor. 


Imperfect 


Present 


2nd Aor. Ind. 


Imperative 


Ind. 


Imperative 


€^aXov 




cjSaXXov 




e)3aXes 


)3aXe 


e/SaXXer 


/SiiXXf 


e^aKf 


/SaXeVo) 


?;3aXXe 


^oKXeTto 


c^dKofiev 




6|8aXXo/i6v 




f^dKere 


/StiXfTf 


ejSoXXeTe 


/SaXXfTf 


ffiaKov 


iSaXeVmo-av 


e/SaXXov 


/3aXXc'T<aCT-ai» 




^aXoVTCov 




jSaXXovrojv 



2nd Aorist Infinitive jSaXeZi/. 
Present Infinitive ^dWetv. 
The 2nd Aorist Infinitive always has a circumflex accent on the last 
syllable. 

Examples of verbs with 2nd Aorists : 

Present Verbal Stem 2nd Aor. Ind. 

iliaprdva I sin dfiapr ijfiapTov 

Xa/JiSawo) I take Xa0 eXa^oi' 

1 Except in the case of IVtijm', which will be given later. 

4—2 



52 



THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 



Present 




Verbal Stem 2nd Aor. Ind. 


fiavBdvio 


I learn 


liad 


e/iadov 


TTIVO} 


I drink 


TTt 


eiriov 


aTroQvqa'Koa 


, I die 


Bav 


dweBavov 


€vpi(TK<0 


I find 


fvp 


fSpov 


TTlVro) 


I fall 


Iff (J 


fnerrov 


TlKTat 


I bring forth 


TfK 


ercKou 


KaraXeiTrta 


I abandon 


\i7r 


KareKiirov 


(jjevyw 


I flee 


^vy 


t^vyov 


ayto 


I lead, or drive 


dy 


T^ayou ^ 


ytvaKTKa 


I know 


yvo 


cyvav 


^alvta 


I go 


/3a 


mi" 


The 2nd Aorist of yti/axTKcB and /SaiVu are conjugated as follows: 


2Dd 2nd 


2nd 


2nd 


Aor. Ind. Aor. 


Imper. Infin. 


Aor. Ind. 


Aor. Imper. Infin. 


eyvtav 


yvojvat 


e^r/v 


^rjva, 


fyvms yvS>6i 




?/3,s 


^n&L Ifid) 


'tyua yvitTO) 




e^ri 


^r)rai 


^yv<ofi€v 




e^Tjfifv 




lyutore yxaire 




i^^r," 


/3^re 


eyvdfrav yvaratrav, yvovTtav 


€^l;o■Ol' 


^ifTWirav, ^dvTtov 



No present tenses are formed from the stems from which the 
following 2nd Aorists are made. In grammars and dictionaries, 
however, they are always connected with certain Present tenses of 
similar meaning and they are said to be the 2nd Aorist tenses of 
these Presents. 

This is an unfortunate arrangement, but it must be taken as it is 
found, and the meanings of these Aorists looked for in dictionaries 
under the Present tenses with which they have been connected. 

All these 2nd Aorists are of most frequent occurrence and must be 

carefully learnt. 

Present with which 
these words are con- 
nected in dictionaries 
opda 
\eya 

f(r6ia) 

' ^70701' is an exception to the usual formation of the 2nd Aorist, the stem 
is " reduplicated " or repeated twice in the 2nd Aorist. 



Stem 


2nd 


Aor. Ind. 


.'5 


fibov 


I saw 


en 


einov 


I said 


o-sx 


e(r^QV 


I held 


<l)ay 


^(jiayou 


I ate 



OBJECT CLAUSES 53 

■jraB cjraBov I suffered ird(rx<'> 

e\6 ffkSov I came ipxafiai 

ivtyK rjveyKov I carried (jiipa 

The Imperative of fISov is 184, that of (Ittov is flwe, that of e^xov is 
(rx^s, that of ij\6ov is A^e. 

The Imperative of the other verbs is formed in the usual way. 

Object clauses after verbs of saying or thinking 

Object clauses after verbs meaning "to say" or "to think" are 
sometimes expressed in Greek, as they nearly always are in English, 
by a clause introduced by on, "that^", with a verb in the Indicative 
mood. 

Examples : They say that they hear the voice. 
X4yov(TCV OTi aKOVOvai Tfjv (jiiovrip. 
We believe that we beheld the temple. 
7rt(Trevop.€v OTi €/3Xei/^a/iev to iepov. 

In Greek however the Tense of the verb which was used by the 
original speaker or thinker when he uttered the words or framed the 
thought is always retained, and the verb in the object clause is not put 
into a past tense as it is in English when the verb in the principal 
clause is in a past tense. In English we say " The man said that he 
heard the voice." The words that the man actually uttered were 
" T hear the voice." In Greek this present tense is retained and we write 

o nvOpaiTOs enrfu ore aKOVfi rrjv (jxavrjv. 

Again, in the sentence " The men believed that the slave was there," 
the thought that the men framed in their minds was "the slave is 
there," consequently we translate this sentence into Greek as follows : 
ol avSpatiroL eTrioTcvaav on 6 fiouXdy eariv exei. 
So in the following sentences : 
He said that he had seen the boats. (I saw the boats.) 
CiTrev on et8e Ta ir'Ko'La, 

They thought that they had seen a vision. (We saw a vision.) 
iuofita'av on ecdov otrTa(riav, 

' N.B. oTt also means "because," as has been already mentionecl. 



54 OBJECT CLAUSES. EXERCISES 

In English the tense of the verb in the object clause is put one stage • 
further into the past : the Past is used instead of the Present, and the : 
Pluperfect instead of the Past. But in Greek the tense used by the 
original speaker or thinker is always retained. 

The student should always ask himself what were the original words 
uttered, or the original thought framed, before trying to translate such 
sentences as these. 

Exercise 19 

Learn Vocabulary 14. 

1. jiera Tavra atridavtv 6 wTOixos. 2. e^rjfiev els to lepov ev cKeivr] 
rfi apa. 3. e/iaOfS on epx^erm 6 KpiTrjs. 4. Si Kvpif, Tjp,apTov els (re. 

5. fiSofiev oTi 6 TeXavrjs (ftipei to dpyvpiov ix t^s olxias. 6. iSe Tois 
Seo'TToras Tijs yfjs. 7. yivao'Kopxv on o vios tov Beov riKBev els Tov 
Koa-ftov (ra^eiv Toiis a/iapTioXovs. 8. eXirev on nlvoviri, tov olvov Koi 
etrOtovo-i TOV aprov. 9. rjveyKopev tovs \iBovs dno rr/s daXdtra-rjs, 10. ra 
bevbpa eiretre els tov dypov, 11. ot Xi^orat e^evyov utto Tav veaviav. 
12. oi 8e 7rpo(j>TJTat efpvyov els ttjv eprjpov. 13. ev Tovra yivunTKopev rrjv 
aydnrjv tov deov oti ewefiyjrev tov vlov avTov tov dyanrjTov els tov KOtrpov. 
14. 0!jBi els Toiis dypoiis Koi \d^e tov xapnov dnu tS>v epyuTcov. 15. cyvmi' 
OTL 6 Kvpios eirefiyjfe tov ayyeXov avrov trco^eiv pe, 16. eXSerto to. iraibia 
TTpos pe. 17. etfropxv oti del naSelv avToiis TroXXa. 18. eidov on 
riydyopev tov o)(Xov els Trjv (Tvvayayfp), 19. ecrxev to /3(^Xia tov dSeXtjmv 
pov. 20. eyvapev oti TroXXa epaBov oi paBrfToi dfro tS>v dnoOToXav. 

1. We cast ourselves into the river. 2. You received the garments 
which the elders sent for the poor. 3. They fled from the face of the 
judges. 4. After this the disciples knew that they had sinned (their 
thought was "we sinned "). 5. This is the stone that fell from heaven. 

6. The virgin brought forth a son, and they called him Jesus i. 7. Ye 
follow me, not because ye saw signs, but because ye ate the loaves. 
8. The Son of man must suffer many things. 9. After these days we 
went to Samaria. 10. Behold the Lamb of God. 11. He said that he 
had learnt many things from the prophet. 12. We know that we must 
suffer many things. 13. On this account they left the sheep in the 
fields and fled. 14. He commanded the multitude to eat the bread 
and drink the wine which the young men brought. 15. The prophet 

^ Accusative case. 



LIQUID VERBS, FUTURE AND AORIST 



55 



who had the book died in the wilderness. 16. We saw that the slaves 
were carrying the boat to the lake (the thought was "they are carrying"). 
17. They said that the children had eaten the fruit (the words used 
were " the children ate the fruit "). 18. They knew that the maidens 
were in the house. 19. I heard that the apostles were going to 
Jerusalem. 



LESSON XX 



THE FUTURE AND AORIST ACTIVE OP LIQUID VERBS. 
TEMPORAL GLAUSES 

The Future and Aorist of verbs whose stems end in a liquid letter 
\ fi, V, p present some peculiarities. 

(1) The present stem is longer than the verbal stem : (a) it has a 
long vowel or a diphthong where the verbal stem has a short vowel, or 
(6) it ends in XX where the verbal stem ends in X (except in the case of 
o0fi'X(a). 

(2) The Future Active and Middle instead of inserting <r before 
their endings have endings like those of the Present of contracted 
verbs in ea. 

(3) The 1st Aor. Act. generally has a long vowel or diphthong in 
the stem, and does not insert a- before its endings, but adds them 
direct to the lengthened stem. 

The following verbs of this class are important. 

1st or 2nd 



Present 


Stem 


Future 


Aor. Act. 


Meaning 


dyyfWw 


ayyfX 


dyyeXSt 


flyyeika 


I announce 


a'pio 


dp 


dpS> 


VP" 


I raise, or take up 


aTToOvT^tTKOi 


6av 


diroOavovfiai 


diredavov 


Idle 


dnoKTflvo) 


KT€V 


d7ro<TevS) 


direKTeiva 


I kill 


dirotrTeWci} 


OTcX 


diroa-Tf\a> 


aTreoTciXa 


I send 


/3dXXca 


^aX 


/SaXffl 


e/3aXov 


I throw 


iyelpa 


iyep 


iytpS) 


rjyfipa 


I rouse 


Kpivto 


KpiV 


KpivS} 


expiva 


I judge 


fieva 


fiev 


p.€vS> 


eficiva 


I remain 


o^ei'XcD 


6<t)(\ 


6<l}e\S} 


&<jifi\a 


I owe, foil, by Inf. 
I ought 



56 TEMPORAL CLAUSES, nrapd 

trwflpa (Tirep irirtpSy ((rnfipa I SOW 

(palva (jiav ^avovpai I manliest 

<j)6eipa> ipBep ^6fpS> fKJideipa I destroy 

The compound forms of these verbs such as TrapayyeWa, iiralpet, 
eK^aKKo), KaraKpivo) form their tenses in exactly the same way as the 
uncompounded forms given above. The Future of dyyeWa is conjugated 
as follows : dyyeXa, dyyikeis, ayye\el, dyyfXovpfv, ayyeXelre, dyye\ovin. 
The 1st Aor. Imperat. is ayytiXov and the Infinitive is dyyciXai. 
The other verbs are all conjugated in the same way. 

Temporal Clauses, or clauses denoting time 

A Temporal Clause denotes the time of the action of the verb in 
the clause on which it depends. 

Temporal clauses are introduced by ore or 6s meaning "when," 
e<ur meaning "while" or "until." 

When a temporal clause refers to a single definite event its verb is 
in the Indicative mood, just as in English. 

N.B. Distinguish carefully between Sre " when," and on " that," or 
" because." 
Examples : 

When he came to the sea he saw the ships. 

ore rj\0f npos Trjv dd\a(r<Tav flBe ra ir\oia. 

While he read the books he remained in the house. 

eas dveyvco ra /3(/3Aia KaT(p,fiveii iv TJj oiKi'a. 

He remained in the house until the slave came. 

Karcpfiufv iv rfj olxia eai ^\6fV 6 SouXof. 

The Preposition irapd 

The root meaning of this preposition is Beside. 
It is used with a noun or pronoun in the accusative, genitive, or 
dative case. 

When used with the Accusative case it denotes generally motion 
to beside or motion along side of places. 
Examples : 

6 8e tTTTopos enea'fv wapa rfju odov. 

But the seed fell by the roadside. 

o Sc Irjtrovs rjXBev napa rrfv 0d\a<TO-av Trjs rdKiKaiat. 

But Jesus went along the side of the sea of Galilee. 



■n-apd. EXERCISES 57 

When used with the Genitive case it denotes motion from beside 
of persons. , 

Example : kol eyvaxrav on irapa aov €^rj\0ov. 

And they knew that I came forth from Thee. 
When used with the Dative it denotes rest beside and may be 
translated "near," or "by," or "with," or "at the house of." 
Example : e/ictvav Trap' aira Trjv fjiiipav cKelvrjv. 

They remained with him that day. 

Exercise 20 

Learn Vocabulary 15. 

1. ore fie ol aTpariarat rjK6ov els rrjv otKLav aTTTjyyeiKav otl airiareiKcv 
aiiTOvs 6^ KopvTjXios. 2. KoraKptifova-LTas \rjpaf koI dTroKTevovat rareKva 
avT&v fiaxatpa. 3. ov fxeveXre ev ra tott,^ tovtco aXX* aTroOavelaOe iv 
TTj yji T&v €-j(6paiV vp.S)v, 4. ot airotTToKot, eff-ireipav tov \6yov iv Tois 
KapSiais TOiv fiadrjraiv. 6. ^p€v ovv tov uravpov Koi ^XBev OTricra) tov 
Irjaov. 6. eV eKelvco roS Kaip^ ol KpiTai eKpetvav Tas <j}v\as 'IcparjX, 
7. e<f)delpapev Tas Kotpas al rjaav -rrapa Trjv Bakaaaav. 8. epetva eKft eais 
aviyvm to jSjiSXiov. 9. ore fie aTrtKreivev 6 'HpmSijs to iraiSia iv BrjffKefp 
KaTf(f}vy€v 6^ *Io)(ri7<^ els AtyvnTov (rvv Mapia. 10. dvvacrBe irteiv to 
TroTYfpiov o fiei pe nielv ; 11. (jjavovpai to ■KpotrtoTTOv pov avTois Kal 
^Xeyj/ova-L t^v Bo^av pov. 12. epelvaptv iv rc» icpto ewff (OKo86povv ol 
epyarai tov Bpovov. 13. &s fie TJKOvtrav ravTa irapa t^s xVP^^ epeivav 
Trap avTjj. 14. S^etXes dpyvptov toIs TfKwvaiS' 15. 6 fie *lT)rrovs eiTTfv 
T(a irapdkvTiK^ ''Eyet/ae, apov ttjv kKivtjv aov Ka\ vnaye els t6v oIkov itov^ 
&s fie rfKOvaev TavTa ^pev Tr/v kXivtjv Kal vnrjyev, 16. aTreoTeiXa/xev tovs 
dyyiXovs eTotpdaat ttjv ofioy. 17. 6 irpoffyTjTrjs enrev OTt TrdvTa hvvaTa 
icTTi Trapa r<a Bfm'^. 18. TrnpijyyeiXa-re aiiTols prj <j)6eipai to. TrXom. 
19. fiBi\rj(Tas ayeiv Ta Trpo^ara Trapa Tci fieVSpa. 20. jrapa Tols dvBpa- 
TTOts dSvvaTov itTTiv aXX* ov Trapa roJ dea>, TrdvTa yap SvvaTU Tvapd ra 
Bea. 21. Kai tovto rjKOvaaiiev nap' avTov otl fiet (f)t\e'lv Toits aSeX<^oiis 
Tjpav. 22. ol ^apuraloL eXeyov oTi iaBUt Trapa dpapTtoXa. 

1. Send the young men to rouse the soldiers. 2. Joseph took the 
Child and Mary and departed into Egypt. 3. They shall not die in 

' Proper nouus in Greek are often preceded by the article ; this article 
must not be translated into English. 

- Trapi T<f fleij) etc. "near God"; translate "with God," or "to God." 



58 THIRD DECLENSION, CONSONANT ENDINGS 

the wilderness, for the soldiers will save them. 4. I will manifest 
myself to my servants (use doiXoc) at that time, saith the Lord. 

5. The Pharisees went to eat bread at the house of the prophet^. 

6. This is impossible with men, but it is possible with God. 7. When 
Herod heard these words he sent his servants to destroy the children 
in Bethlehem with the sword. 8. They remained in the house while 
the paralytic took up his bed. 9. We announced that the apostle was 
staying (use fieva>) in the house of Cornelius. 10. Take up thy cross 
and carry it after me. 11. You ought not to condemn these widows. 
12. I shall cast the sword into the lake. 13. When the disciples came 
to the village they sowed the word in the hearts of the people. 
14. The Son of man (insert the article before " of man ") must suffer 
many things. 15. I heard this from (napd) the prophet who lives 
(/levm) at the house of the widow in Bethlehem. 16. Wilt thou not 
slay the wicked, Lord? 17. They wished to throw the stones beside 
the temple. 18. The Pharisees said that the disciples of John did not 
eat with publicans and sinners (use napd). 



LESSON XXI 

THE THIRD DECLENSION 

The third declension contains all nouns which do not belong to the 
first or second declension. 

The stems of third declension nouns end (1) in a consonant, (2) in 
a vowel, generally i, v or ev. 

(1) TMrd. Declension nouns with stems ending in a consonant. 

The endings of these nouns when masculine or feminine are as 
follows ; 

Singular Plural 



Nom. 


Various 


cs 


Voc. 


Same as Nom., br 
same as stem 


fS 


Ace. 


a 


as 


Gen. 


OS 


(OV 


Dat. 


1 


a-i 



^ Use irapd with the dat. for "at the house of." 



THIRD DECLENSION, EXAMPLES 



59 



These endings are added to the stem. The stem is found by taking 
away the ending of the Genitive Singular. 

Examples : Nominative Genitive Stem 

VV^ night VVKTOS VVKT 

irais boy TrmSos waiS 

apxav ruler apxovros dp^ovT 

The following are examples of the declension of nouns of the third 



declension. 












Stems ending in a mute letter 




(6) 4>v\a^ (o) 


a-aXiriy^ 


(6) qSovs 


(ri) eXnU 


a 


guard 


a trumpet 


a tooth 


hope 


Stem 


fpvKaK 


aaXTTiyy 
Singular 


68oVT 


AffiS 


Nom. 


(f>vXa^ 


a-dXiriy^ 


odovs 


cXiris 


Voc. 


<j)v\a^ 


a-aXTTiy^ 


68ovs 


fXnis 


Ace. 


(jJvXaKa 


(rdXTTtyya 


oSovra 


fXn-iSa 


Gen. 


<l)v\aKos 


a-dXiriyyos 


oBoVTOS 


eXirlBos 


Dat. 


<j)vXaKi 


ordXiTLyyi 
Plural 


oSoVTl 


eXntSi 


Nom. 


<l)v\aK€S 


(rdXirtyyes 


odovres 


eXnides 


Voc. 


(jivXaKcs 


a-dXiriyyes 


oSoKTEf 


(XniSes 


Ace. 


<f)vXaKas 


a-dXiriyyas 


obovTas 


eXirtbas 


Gen. 


(jivXaKOiv 


(Tdkiriyyav 


o86vTaiv 


eXTTidrnv 


Dat. 


<jiv\a^i 


crdXiriy^i 


odoVfTL 


iXnltTL 




Stem.s 


1 ending in a liquid letter 




(6) TrOLfUfV (6) 


aldiv (o) 1 


'lyejimv (<)) 


(rayrrjp 


a .shepherd 


an age a leader 


a saviour 


Stem 


noifiev 


alcov 

Singular 


rjye/iov 


trioTep 


Nom. 


Totfirjv 


aldtv 


fiyefimv 


<r(aTrjp 


Voc. 


TTOlJirjV 


alav 


riyefiav 


(Torrep 


Ace. 


notfieva 


aiava 


ijyf/ioxa 


(rtoTTipa 


Gen. 


TTOi/ie'vos 


aliovos 


. riycjiovos 


aatTTJpos 


Dat. 


TTOlfiivi 


almvt 


fjyffiiovi 


<rO}TTJpL 



60 



THIRD DECLENSION, CONSONANT ENDINGS 



Plural 



Nom. 


woifievfs 


aiaives 


fiyefioves 


irwTrjpes 


Voo. 


noijiives 


alSives 


jfycfioves 


a-coTrlpis 


Ace. 


TToi/Uvas 


aiS)pas 


jjytjiovas 


(TtoTTipas 


Gen. 


TTOllUVtOV 


alavav 


rjycfMovojv 


a-cnTfipav 


Dat. 


TTOtfietrt 


al&a-i 


T]y€fi6(ri 


a-cDTfipvi 



Note on the Foemation op the Vocative Singular 
AND Dative Plural 

The Vocative is the same as the Nominative in nouns with stems 
ending in a mute letter such as fpiXa^, and in nouns with stems ending 
in a liquid letter which are accented on the last syllable such as noifuiv. 
Nouns not accented on the last syllable have the Vocative like the 
stem, as haliiav, Vocative baijiov. 

Exceptions. Nouns with stems in ih such as ekiris have the Vocative 
like the stem without the final consonant, trarrip has the Vocative 
aarep. 

All other nouns have the Vocative the same as the stem. 
When <ri is added to the stem to form the Dative plural, the same con- 
sonantal changes take place as take place in forming the Future of verba : 
gutturals followed by o- form ^, 
labials followed by <r form yjf, 
dentals and v followed by a- drop out. 
Examples : 

Nominative Meaning 
(j)vXa^ a guard 

(/)\c'\|f a vein 

e'Xnis hope 

noip.r]v a shepherd 
The best way to learn 3rd declension nouns is to learn the Nom. 
Sing., Gen. Sing., and gender all at once. 

The gender of nouns is generally indicated in dictionaries by adding 
the proper gender of the article to the noun, thus x^P'^ h means that 
X^pi-i is feminine, nvp to means that irCp is neuter. 

The following are some of the most common 3rd declension nouns 
in the New Testament. 

Nominative Genitive Gender Meaning 

oiKeKTiap aXeKTopos 6 a cock 

dfineXav dp,7rfXS>vos 6 a vineyard 



Stem 


Dative plural 


(jivXaK 


<l>vXa^i 


0Xe)3 


<j>X4\jn 


eXttiS 


iXviai 


TTOtpev 


iroipicri 





THIRD DE( 


2LE: 


NSION. 


EXERCISES 


ap^iov 


apxpvTos 








6 


a ruler 


aiTTTIp 


daripos Dat 


,.pl. 


aarpatri 




6 


a star 


flxav 


CLKaVOS 








V 


an image 


Xa/iTrds 


'Kap.TrdSos 








V 


a lamp 


M" 


prjvos 








6 


a month 


vv^ 


VVKTOS 








V 


a night 


irais 


naiSos 








6 


a child 


a-dp^ 


a-apKos 








n 


flesh 


Xapifl 


xdpiTos 








h 


favour or grace 






Exercise 21 







61 



Learn Vocabulary 16. 

1. eyeipetrde rfi <j}Q)v^ Trjs caXTTtyyoy. 2. (jjvXao-a-eaBtoaav ai Bvpai 
VTTO tSiv 0vXaKCi)i/. 3. aTTea-TeiXav tovs Troipevas avvdyeiv Ta irpo^ara 
vvKTOs^, 4. qI TToidfS ^pov TTjv eiKova. 5. nevova-i ev rrj yjj avrav €is^ 
TOP alStva. 6. ore 8e e^rjXdev 6 JleTpos eiiOiis e<j)aiV7]a-ev 6 oXeKrcop. 
7. eXa/3fs Tov Kapirov toC dp.7re\aivos Tois Troip.eiTi. 8, eTrotrjtTa totjtov 
Tov ^iTotva Ta Traidl. 9. ai de Trapdevot eXa/3ov rds \apird8as Kai 
e^ijXdov Ibelv tov vvfKJjiov. 10. cra)(6pc6a yap eXn-iSt Ka\ Trj )^dpin tov 
deoij. 11. Ide TOVS da-T^pas ^v Ta ovpava. 12. cKaXovv avrovTov aaTrfpa 
TOV Kocrpov. 13. et pi)* eaOieTC Trfv adpKa tov vlov tov dv6pa)7rov ovk 
ex€T€ ^arjv ev eavTois. 14. nepTroput vtto t&v rjyepovQiv dirayyeiXaL vptv 
TavTa. 15. aKovaov fjpwv^^ rrcoTep tov 'lo"/ja^X. 16. TavTrjv Trjv x^P^^ 
TKafiov wapa tov Kvpiov. 17. /jera Se Tpels prjvas oi ap)(0VTes tlariXSov 
els TO iepov vvKTos^. 

1. We destroyed the images which we saw in the temple. 2. Peter 
went out of the door, and immediately the cock crew. 3. The master 
sent the labourers into his vineyard. 4. After three months we beheld 
the star in the heavens. 5. When the bridegroom came by night they 
took their lamps and went out to see him. 6. You were being roused 
by the trumpets. 7. We announced to you that he was the Saviour 
of the world. 8. Receive the grace of God. 9. The garments were 

1 Note that the Aco. Sing, of x^pis is xdpw. 

^ vvkt6s "by night," the Genitive ease is used in Greek to express the 
time within which anything is done. 

' eis t6v alwua " until the age," a Hebrew expression generally translated 
" for ever." 

* el pi " unless," or " except." 

' dKoiiw is sometimes followed by a Genitive. 



62 



THIRD DECLENSION, VOWEL ENDINGS 



being sent for the children by the widows. 10. The shepherds called 
their own sheep, and they came after them. 11. Unless we eatjthe 
flesh of the Son of man we shall have no life in ourselves. 12. Here 
will I dwell for ever, saith the Lord. 



LESSON XXII 



NOUNS WITH STEMS ENDING IN A VOWEL, ETC. 
NEUTER NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

(2) Nouns of the Third Declension with stems ending in a 
vowel. 

These nouns have stems ending in t, v, or ev. 
Examples : 



(-5) 


jroXis (6) lx6vs 


(o) /Sao-iXcvf 




a eity a fish 


a king 


Stem 


iroXi lx6v 

Singular 


^aaiKev 


Nom. 


TToXts IxSvs 


^atriXevs 


Voc. 


n-dXt Ixdv 


/Sao-iXfu 


Ace. 


7r6\Lv IxBvv 


jSao-iXe'a 


Gen. 


n-oXemc IxSvos 


/Sao-tXcoir 


Dat. 


TToXet Ix^vi 
Plural 


^aa-iKci 


Nom. 


TToXetr IxBvfs 


/SacriXfij 


Voc. 


TToXeis Ixdvfs 


fiaariXf'is 


Ace. 


nnXcis IxBvs 


^acriKtU, jSacriXf'ar 


Gen. 


TToKetov Ix^vatv 


/Sao-iXeo)!/ 


Dat. 


TToKetri Ix^vai 


fiairiXeviTi 


The noims 


of this class which occur 


most frequently}in the N. T. 


are given in the vocabularies. 




Neuter nouns of the 3rd declension i 


a,re declined as follows : 




Singular 


Plural 


Nom. Voc. Ace. ypdiifia a letter ypd/iiiaTa 


Gen. 


ypafifjiaTos 


ypa/i/iaTav 


Dat. 


ypafifian 


ypaiifiacri 



THIRD DECLENSION, NEUTER AND IRREGULAR 63 

Notice that as in the case of neuter nouns of the 2nd declension the 
Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative cases have the same endings, 
and the Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative Plural end in a. 

Decline like ypdiifia the words given in the vocabulary, and also 
Trip, TTvpos, fire ; ripas, Tcparos, a wonder ; <j)S)s, cjxotos, light ; which 
are all neuter. 

Neutee Nodns with Stems Ending in « 

The final s of the stem appears only in the Nominative singular, 
and there the es is changed to os. 

In the other cases r is dropped and the two vowels thus brought 
together are contracted. 

Example : Stem yfi/es with Genitive ending added becomes yivea-os, 
when the s is omitted it becomes yeveos, and this is contracted to 
yexous. The same takes place in the other cases. 
Singular Plural 

Nom. Voc. Ace. yevos a race yevr/ 

Gen. yevovs yeviav or yfvau 

Dat. ■ytVa yeveai 

The nouns of this class which occur most frequently in the N. T. 
are given in the vocabularies. They must be carefully distinguished 
from nouns of 2nd declension ending in os which are nearly all 
masculine. 

Irregular nouns of the Third Declension 

The declension of the following nouns should be noted : they are 
contracted in the Dat. and Gen. Sing, and have the Voc. Sing, the 
same as the stem. 



TraTTjp 6 


father, 


Bvydrqp 


r) daughb 




/ilJTIJp fi 


mother 




They are declined 


as follows : 




• 




Singular 




Plural 


Nom. 


irarrip 




TTaTepes 


Voc. 


Trdrep 




irarepes 


Ace. 


irarepa 




irarepas 


Gen. 


jroTpo'r 




irarepaiv 


Dat. 


irarpi 




7raTpa<ri 



64 



THIRD DECLENSION, IRREGULAE 



The following is the declension of dvrip, a man. 

Singular Plural 

Nom. dvrjp avSpfS 

Voc. avep avSpes 

Acc. avSpa avSpas 

Gen. dvSpos dvtpav 

Dat. dvSpi dvSpaa-i 

The following nouns should also be specially noticed : 



Nominative 


Genitive Sing. 


Dative PI, 


yovv a knee 


yovaros 


TO 


yovaa-t 


yvvri a woman Voc. yvvm ywaiKos 
6pi^ a hair rpip^or 

Kvav a dog KVVOS 


h 

V 
6 


yvvai^i 

dpL^i 

Kva-i 


ous an ear 


dlTOS 


TO 


Qxrl 


TTovs a foot 


TToSos 


6 


noiri 


vSa>p water 


vSaTos 


TO 


vSaa-L 


)^eip a hand 


Xeipos 


V 


X^pcrL 



Exercise 22 

Learn Vocabulary 17. 

1. ^\6ev 6 \(advrjs fls tov ^lopddvrjv iroTapxiv Kul eKfjpvatTe tA ^dnTto'fia 
lifTavoias eis a(j>ea-tv a/iapTiSiv. 2. iSere ffijXiKoir' ypdp.fiaa-i vp.iv eypa^a 
Trj ipfi xetpL 3. elnev otl oijK. eaTiv aiiTos to (^oiff, aXX epx^Toi p,aprupTJ- 
crai nepl tov tfiaros. 4. oi ex^pol etjiBcipav Tas jroXfis rJ/Kov nvpi. 5. /ii; 
iroievre TOv oiKov tov iraTpos /aov oIkov €p,TropLOV^. 6. f'JTft vtto Trjs 
firjTpos Kol Tav dSeXKJJcav aov. 7. ov Set Xa^fiv tov dpTOV Totv Tratfio)!/ Ka\ 
^akeiv avTov rols kvitl. 8. oi avBpes TrepLeiraTovv Tovs dypoi/s <rvv Tols 
yvvai^iv avrav. 9. exeXevaa tovs avSpas (TOifid^eiv Trjv 686v ra PaaiKei. 
10. eyii> fiev ^anTL^co vp.ds vdaTt, fKflvos fie j3a7rrio"ei vpas •nvevpari aytea 
Koi itvpi. 11. ixpi^fv yap tjjv &(jietnv tS)v dpapTimv rjpav Sia roii aipaTOS 
avTov. 12. TTOirjae^ (rrjpeia Kai Tepara raj yevet touto). 13. oi jraifies 
^Xa^ov TOV i^Ovv eK tov vdaTOS. 14. dvoi^ei to Zyra Ta)v Ka)(f>a}v. 15. Kat 
/lera Tavra ^Xdov ol pxiOi^Tat avTov Kal eBavfia^ov OTi p.€Ta yvvaiKos eXdkei. 
16. eypa-\jra irdvTa Tavra Trj ;(fipi ttjs BvyaTpos p.ov. 17. eyo) yap ovk 
T)X6ov woirjo-ai to deXri/id pov, dXXa to deXrjpa tov Trarpos &y dn-fVi-fiXe pe. 
18. 01 ypappaTeis eiirov ort elSov ttjv BvyaTcpa tov /SaatXfUS. 

^ tttjXIkos "how large." 2 i/xirdpiop "merchandise." 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 65 

1. This man did signs and wonders in the city. 2. Behold my 
hands and my feet. 3. Ye are the light of the world. 4. The woman 
was wiping {i^ijuxa-tre) the feet of Jesus with her hair. 5. Our fathers 
did eat the manna {to fiawa) in the wilderness. 6. He touched the 
ear of the deaf man with his hand. 7. The king sent this woman to 
bring her father from the city. 8. He was seeking his mother and 
his daughter. 9. The Holy Spirit shall remain with them for ever. 
10. Thou sayest that thou knowest the will of God. 11. The dogs 
ate the fish which I took out of the water. 12. In that year my 
father went through your city. 13. The scribes would not receive 
baptism for' the remission of their sins. 14. I read the letters which 
he wrote by the hand of his wife. 15. Your cities are destroyed with 
fire. 16. We bowed (eKa/ii/^nfiew) our knees to the king. 17. woman, 
depart in peace, for I will heal thy daughtei'. 



LESSON XXIII 

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION, 
IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 

Adjectives of the third declension have only two terminations, 
because the feminine is the same as the masculine. 

The two principal forms of these adjectives are declined as follows : 

akrjBrjs^ true 

Stem aKrjdfs 





Singular 


Pliu-al 






Masc. Fern. Neut. 


Masc. Fem. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


dXijdijs a.\r]64s 


dXi/flfiy 


akriOri 


Voc. 


oKrjdes dXriSes 


dXij^tis 


aKrjOrj 


Ace. 


aXrjd^ d\ri64s 


d\7]deis 


aKj)6ri 


Gen. 


dXriBovs d\rj6ovs 


oKrjdatv 


dXrjSatv 


Dat. 


d\rj6fi dXriSei 


ok-qBifTi 


dXriBia-t 



1 "for" ch. 

^ For the contractions in the endings, see p. 63. 



66 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 









a(j>pa)V 


foolish 












Stem 


dtfipou 








Masc. '. 


Singular 
Fem. 


Nent. 


Plural 
MaBc. Fem. Nent. 


Nom. &<j)pav 
Voc. a<l)pov 
Acc. a<l)pova 

Geu. &(f)pouos 

Dat. a<j)povi 


a<f>pov 

S(j)pov 

atppov 

a(l>popos 

a(j)povi 


a<j)poves 
S(j>povfs 
&<jipovas 
d<l>p6va>i 
Scfipoa-i 




a<f>pova 

a<l>pova 

afjipova 

dcjypovtttv 

a<f>poai 


Some adjectives have the ma.sciiline and neuter of the 3rd declension 
and the feminine of the 1st declension. 


Example : was, iraa-a. 
Singular 


irdu all. 


Plural 






Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


was 


iraa-a 


irav 


TrdvT€S 


Trao-oi 


TravTO 


Voc. 


nas 


irdira 


wdv 


iravTcs 


irdu'ai. 


ndvTa 


Acc. 


iravTa 


ndarav 


irdv 


trdvras 


wda-as 


ndvTa 


Gen. 


navTOS 


irdfrrjs 


TTaVTOS 


■navTwv 


TTOtrStV 


irdvTav 


Dat. 


navri 


waa-ri 


iravri 


Trdai 


Trdo-ais 


Train. 



The following irregular adjectives occur frequently. 

jToXus, jToXXij, TToXu many. 

peyas, peydXri, fidya great or large. 







Singular 






Plural 






Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


TToXvS 


TTOXX^ 


jroXv 


TToXXoi 


TToXXai 


rroXXd 


Voc. 








TToXXot 


TToXXat 


TToXXa 


Acc. 


iroKvv 


TToWriv 


TToXtJ 


TToXXouff 


TToXXdj 


noWd 


Gen. 


TToXXoC 


TToXX^r 


TToWoV 


TToXXSl' 


jroXXSv 


TToXXmi' 


Dat. 


TToWa 


TTOXX^ 


noWa 


jroXXoIs 


TToWals 


TToXXoIi 



Nom. piyas peyoKi) fifya 

Voc. /ieyaXe peyakrj l>^ya 

Acc. peyav peyaKr^v peya 

Gen. peydXov peydXrjs peydXov 

Dat. peydKif ptydXj} peyaXtf 



peydXoi peydXai peydka 

peyaKoi peydXai peydXa 

peydXovs pfydKas pcydKa 

peydKav peydXav pcydKtoV 

peydXois ^pyaXair ptydXois 



The declension of ds "one" and of the derived words ovSeis and 
prjSets " no one, nothing " should be noticed. 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 



67 



Great care must be taken to distinguish els "one" (maso.) from 
"to," and h "one" (neuter) from tV "in." 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 







Nom. 


A 


fiia 


ev 










Aco. 


eva 


fitav €v 










Gen. 


ivos 


fiias evos 










Dat. 


ivl 


fita 


ivi 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


oiSei'y 


ovdf/xia 


ovSeV 




injScis 


ItriSefiia 


Ii7]biv 


Aoc. 


Qv8eva 


oiide/iiav 


ovbiv 




lofbiva 


lirj&eftiav 


H7)S4v 


Gen. 


ovSevos 


oiSe/uas 


ovbevos 




fUjBevos 


Hijhefuas 


fiilSevos 


Dat. 


oi/devl 


ovdefiia 


ov8evl 




)ir)bevi 


Hrjbiiua 


ixqhevi 



oiScis is used when the verb with which it is connected is in the 
Indicative mood, firjSels is used when the verb with which it is 
connected is in the Imperative or Infinitive mood. 

oiSeis and iirfbels are used even when the verb already has a 
itive. 



Examples : 

No one told me this. They said nothing to any one. 

ovheis eiTre /lot rouro. ovbev ovbev\ eTirov. 

Do not hurt any one. I am not able to see any one. 

/ii) 0Xdyjrov /jajSeva. ov hivajxai Iheiv /ujScVa. 

Exercise 23 

Learn Vocabulary 18. 

1. tSe vyirj eTrolrjo'd (re, firjKeTi dfidprave. 2. oi TirjoToi f<j>vyov els to 
opr). 3. ovSels deXei nielu Tov olvov tovtov. 4. to ovo/id jimi fUya earai 
ev na(ri toIs e6ve<ri. 5. ol lepeis ^\6ov vvktI>s kox ijpav to trajw. tov 
TrpoKJyrjTov. 6. el oZv to fji&s ro ev trol tTKoTos ea'Tiv, to o-kotos troaov^' ^. 
7. ^ yvpatf peyaKrj^ (TOV tj irlfTTts. 8. yivattrnopev oti to prjfjLaTa raOra 
aXrjOrj etrTLV, ort^ eXdXTjaev avTa 6 Kvptos fita oroixaTos Aaveld tov 7rpo<j)rjTov. 

9. avTr) Se earui jj Kpiiris on to ^Si ^6ev els tov KoiTfiOv Koi e<t>IXrja-av ol 
avdpanoi, /naXXov to o^kotos rj* to 4>S>S' ^v yap avrStv novrjpa Ta epya. 

10. wefiTreirBa els tS>v Sovhaiv irrreipeiv to aivepfia ev Tm dypa fiov. 

11. (rvvrip^ovTO he iroXKoX e'k tSiv k&juhv kcu, et^epov avra Toiis dirBevels 
Kcti e^akov avToiis irapd tovs irobas avTov^ Kot edeovTO avTov depaireveiv 

' irda-ov "how great." ' Understand i(7TL ' Urt "because." 

* 17 "than"; distinguish carefully from r) and ij. 

5—2 



68 FIRST AOEIST PASSIVE 

avTovs. 12. fiijSfir crKavSaKileTio tva tSiv iralStov toutiov. 13. oi hi 
yovfts avTov ovk eyvatrav on jiivei iv rfj TrdXet. 14. oix V ypa<t>'l (nrev on 
fK rov a-irepfuiTos AavfiS, (cai diro Bij^Xec/u t^j Kajiijs Snov tjv AaveiS, 
cpX^Tui 6 Xpurrm; 15. cv eKfivt/ rrj &pq (rvvdyovToi aira ttoXXoI t&v 
dpxiepeav ot Xiyavtriv on ovk earm dvaaTatris. 

1. Thou shalt open my mouth, Lord, and my tongue shall praise 
thy name. 2. Didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ? 3. Do not 
carry any (use fiijSfi's) sick man to the synagogue on the Sabbath day. 
4. If thou wilt, thou art able to heal me. 5. I came into, this world 
for (els) judgement. 6. One of the lepers, when he saw that he was 
healed, cast himself at his feet. 7. The high priests knew that this 
saying was true. 8. All the disciples were full of faith and of the 
Holy Spirit, and they healed the sick, and cast out many devils. 
9. None of the priests believes that there is a resurrection. 10. My 
parents built many houses in this city. 11. Let no one love darkness 
more than light. 12. When they came to the villages they preached 
the Gospel to all the Gentiles who dwelt there. 13. If I judge, my 
judgement is true. 14. When the disciples of John heard that he was 
dead, they came and took up his body. 

LESSON XXIV 

THE FIRST AND SECOND AORIST PASSIVE. 
THE FUTURE PASSIVE 

The conjugation of the First Aorist Passive is as follows : 



Indicative 


Imperative 


e\v6jjv 


I was loosed etc. 




eKv6r)s 




\v8rfTi be loosed etc. 


e\v6r) 




\v&r^Tat 


iKvBrififV 






ikvBrjTe 




\v0r)T€ 


ikuBrjirav 




XvBrjTaaav 



\v64vTaiv 
Infinitive 
\v6rjvm to be loosed 

Notice that the characteristic letters of the First Aorist Passive 
are 6ri. 



FUTURE AND SECOND AORIST PASSIVE 



69 



Tlie conjugation of the Future Passive is as follows : it is formed by 
adding 6ri<r to the stem of the verb and putting after it the endings of 
the Present Passive. 



Infinitive 
"KvBria-ea-dai to be about 
to be loosed. 



Indicative 
Xtiflifo-ofiat I shall be loosed etc. 

\v8ri<reTai 

\v6rjiT6fieBa 

\v6fi(Tf<r6f 

\v$T)(TOVTai 

The presence of the letter 6 at the beginning of the endings of these 
tenses causes certain consonantal changes which may be summarised 
as follows : 

K., y, X followed by 6 become ^fl, 
IT, ^, (^ followed by 6 become (f>d, 
T, 8, 6 followed by d become ad. 
In the contracted verbs the short vowel is lengthened before 6. 
Examples : 

1st Aor. Pass. 

eirpd)(6rjv 

inel(r6r]v 

The Second Aorist Passive does not occur very frequently in the 
N.T. Its endings are practically the same as those of the First Aorist 
Passive with the exception that the 6 is omitted. The 2nd Aor. Pass, 
of <t)aiv<o is given below. 



Present 


Stem 


ayca 


ay 


jrpao-o-o) 


irpay 


neiirrio 


nefiTT 


TTfida 


neid 


<l)t\€(a 


<f}iK€ 



Put. Pass. 
d-xB'lo'ofiai 
7rpa;(di7tro/xat 
ireiiCl)dria'onai 
neur6r)<T0ii.ai, 
(piKflBfjo-oiuii 



Indicative 








Imperative 


i^avr]v 
e<j)dvr]S 
e^dvr) 


I appeared 


etc. 




(pdvridi, appear etc. 


€<pdvrifi,fv 
i(j}dvriT€ 










(j)dvr]Tf 


i(j)dvr)iTav 










(jiavfiToia-av 
^avcvTcav 








Infinitive 






(pavrjvai 


to 


appear 



70 



AORIST AND FUTURE PASSIVES 



The following are some of the Second Aorists Passive found' in 
the N.T. 

iypa<liT]v "I was written" from ypa^a 

iK.pv^T)v "I was hidden" from Kpiwra 

ea-irdprjv "I was sown" from a-ireipa 

ea-TaXtjv "I was sent" from trreXKo) 

earpdtfnjv "I was turned" from a-Tpitjxo 

f(l)6dpriv "I was destroyed" from ^6fipa> 

The following important verbs have irregular forms of the 1st Aoriat 
and Future Passive. 



Present 




Future 






1st Aorist 


Indicative 




Passive 






Passive 


aKoia 




aKOva-drja-oiiai. 






rjKova-ffriv 


/3<iXXo> 




^Xridrjo-onai 






ifiXrjdriv 


cyflpa 




iyep6fi<rofiai 






i,yip6r,v 


KoKea 




KKrfdrja'op.at 






iKk-qdrjv 


XaiiPdvo) 




'K-q<^6i)<Top.m. 






iKr]<j>6riv 


Xeyo) root 


f'p 








ippi6r)v, ippridriv 


6pda> root 


Stt 


o(pdr)(rojiai (I 


shall be seen, 


a^driv (I was seen, 








or I shall 


ap- 


or I ap- 








pear) 




peared) 


<f)4pa) root 


evcyx 








ijvixSriv 



N.B. The Future Passive and 1st Aorists given as coming from 
the last three verbs are really in no way derived from them. These 
verbs are defective as is explained on p. 52. 



Exercise 24 

Revise Vocabularies 14-18. 

1. ijx6^ ° 'Ii/(roCs vjrb roi IlvfvpaTos els rd oprj Treipatrdfivai iiiro tov 
Sia/3dXou. 2. o apxi'tpfiii cKpi^ri iv rots Spcai ttoXXo ?r>;'. 3. to ovo/id 
fiov KTipyx^V'TfTai iv irdtn tois eBveai. 4. rij yap ;(apirt e(raidr]iiev 8ia tov 
OeXrjpMTOS 6eov. 5. oi veKpoi eyepdrja-ovTOi iv ^p-ipa Kpitreas Tfj <j)ti>vrj 
TOV dyyiXov Koi Tjj (TaKirtyyi. 6. kcll oTe i^e^Xrjdrj to daifioviov idav- 



' iroXXi h-T) "for many years" : the Accusative case is used to express 
duration of time, see author's Syntax of N.T. Greek, 18. 



EXERCISES 71 

fia^ev 6 ox^oSj eXcyov 8e iroWoi OTI^ Tavra to, repara oiiK €irpd)(67] iv Tois 
^fiepais Toyv irareptav fjfiSiv. 7. fi^ra Tavra at(j>dr] ■jrao'i Tois airofTToKois, 
8. eKeXeuo-f rov avdpa eVe;^^^i'at 8ta t^s noKetas, 9. ev eKeivij rrj rjfiepa 
iras 6 Xaoff K\r]6rj<rerat dytos ra Kvpta^ 10. at yvvaiKes TrapeKXrjBrjo'av 
turo tSiv dvSp&v avrav. 11. iroifjira to. prj/uiTd jxm) aROVcrBrjvai vtto tov 
/SaortXeW. 12. ovbeis tS)v dyyeXav dKOvtrBrjaerai. 13. irdvTfs ol l)(6ies 
iff\ridr]<rav els TO vS(op. 14. ravTacpprjOj] 8ia a-TofiaTos Aaveid. 15. irep.- 
fpdrjTca €is rS>v iepeav ireWetv rov ^aaiXea. 16. 0T€ Kapirov eTToirja-e to 
Kokov CTTreppu €(j>dvrj Kalrd ^t^dvLa^. 17. Zi^ao'tKev^^CKii}6r)tTeiVTr6 iravTos 
TOV yevovs. 18. rd aaifxaTa tcov dyltov (CFTrdpr} iv nTifiia^^ iyepdrja-eTai 
Se ev 86^7], 19. iKKr)6r)T€ d^poves vtto r5)v vo^SiV tov alatvos tovtov. 
1. All this nation was called righteous (neut. agreeing with ■yei/os)^ 

2. Many of these words were written in a book by the high priest. 

3. The fish were taken by these boys. 4. We were sown in weakness 
(da-ffeveia), we shall be raised in power. 5. If the devil shall be cast 
out the crowd will wonder. 6. The good seed was carried to the fields. 
7. I was sent by one of the king's servants to seek for thee. 8. We 
know that this Gospel shall be preached to all the Gentiles, and that 
many will hear. 9. In that day many bodies of the saints arose (were 
raised), and came into the city, and appeared to many. 10. We wish 
those sheep to be driven to the hills. 11. Thou shalt be saved by 
faith and hope, if thou wilt abide in them. 12. You commanded the 
stones to be cast into the water. 13. All these things shall be done in 
the darkness. 14. Ye have heard that it was said by our fathers 
" Thou shalt not make an image of the Lord thy God°." 15. We were 
called foolish' by many of the rulers of the Gentiles, but we know that 
the words which we speak are true. 

* on must not be translated, it is often used to introduce the exact words 
of a speaker, like our inverted commas, Syntax 158. 

3 fi^Kio "tares." 

* h inidq. " in dishonour." 
5 Syntax 11. 

* See note 2 on the Greek exercise. 
' " foolish," plural, Syntax 11. 



72 



PARTICIPLES 



LESSON XXV 



PARTICIPLES 



Participles are verbal adjectives sharing the characteristics both of 
verbs and adjectives. 

As a verb a participle has a subject, and, if it is the participle of a 
transitive verb in the active voice, it may have an object. It has also 
tense and voice. 

As an adjective it agrees with the noun which it qualifies, that is 
with its subject, in number, gender and case. 

The active participles are declined with 3rd declension endings in 
the masculine and neuter, and Ist declension endings in the feminine. 
They are as follows : 





Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


stem 


Meaning 


Pres. Part. Act. 


Xvav 


\vova-a 


Xvou 


\V0VT 


loosing 


Fut. Part. Act. 


Xv(ra>v 


\i(rova-a 


\v(TOV 


XvirovT 


being about to 
loose 


1st Aor. Part. Act. 


Xvtras 


Xva-aa-a 


\v(rav 


\va-avT 


having loosed 


2nd Aor. Part. Act. 


^a\a>v 


^a\ov(ra 


fioKov 


jSaXovr 


having thrown 


Pres. Part, of tlfii 


wv 


ova-a 


ov 


OVT 


being 



It will be observed that (1) the future participle is the same as the 
present with the insertion of o- before the endings. 

(2) The characteristic a-a occurs in the 1st aorist participle. 

(3) The endings of the 2nd aorist participle are the same as those 
of the present participle, but the stem and the accents differ. 

The present and 1st aorist participles active are declined as follows : 



Present Participle Active 



Singular 

N.V. Xiwv Xvovtra \vov 

A. \vovTa \vov(Tav \\iov 

G. \vovros XvovaTjs "Kvovtos 

D. XvOVTL XvOVO'JJ XvOVTl 



Plural 

Xvovres \vov(rai Xvovra 

\vovTas \vm<Tas \vovra 

XvouTtov \vov(r5tu Xvovrcov 

Xvovtri XvoiKTats Xuovcri 



Note that the masc. and neut. dat. pi. is the same in form as the 
3rd pi. pres. ind. 



FIRST AORIST PARTICIPLE 



73 



First Aorist Participle Active 



N.V. 
A. 
G. 
D. 



Singular 



\va-as 
Xvaavra 
XvfravTOs 
XvtravTt 



\virav 
\vaav 
XviravTOs 
XvtrauTi 



Plural 
XvtravTes \va-airai 



\viTa<Ta 
Xvtrcurau 
Xvtrdcrrjs 
XvtrdtTrj 

The present participles active of the contracted verbs in ew are 
declined as follows : 



XvfravTas 
Xva-dvrtop 
Xv(Tao'L 



Xv<rd(Tas 
Xvaaaav 
Xv(rd(raLS 



XvtravTa 
XvaavTa 
XvardvTav 
Xutracrt 



N.V. cjitXav cl>i,Xov<ra (^(Xo£i> 

A. <j)tXovvTa (jjiXovcrav (jitXovv 
G. (jjiXovvTOS <^iXov(Tris rjitXoiivTos 

The present participle of elfil is declined like Xiav 



etc. 



N.V. &v 

A. SvTU 
G. OVTOS 



ovtra 
ovfxav 



ov 
ovros 



etc. 



The present participle middle and passive is declined like an 
adjective of the 2nd declension. The aorist participles passive are 
declined with 3rd declension endings in the masculine and neuter and 
1st declension endings in the feminine. 

Pres. Part. Mid. and Pass. Xvo/jifvos, ri, ov 
1st Aor. Part. Pass. Xvdels, de'ura, 6iv 



2nd Aor. Part. Pass. 



<jiaveiSi eiffa, iv 



being loosed 

loosed, or having been 

loosed 
having appeared 



The 1st Aor. Part. Pass, is declined as foUovys : 

Singular Plural 

N.V. Xvdcis Xvdeicra Xv64v XvBivTis Xvdelcrai Xudivra 

A. XvBivra Xv6ei(rav Xvdiv Xvdevras Xv6eio-as XvBivra 

G. Xv64vTO^ XvSeioTjs XvBevTos Xvdevrav XvOeiaStv XvBivTtov 

D. XvOevTi XvBela-Tj XvBevTi XvBs'iai XvBeitrais XvBeifri 

Participles are generally negatived with /xij in the New Testament. 
Participles are used much more frequently in Greek than in English. 
They may be used either Adjectivally or Adverbially. 



74 ADJECTIVAL AND ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES 

1. The Adjectival Participle. 

In this use the adjectival side of the participle is most prominent. 
The adjectival participle is generally preceded by an article with which 
it agrees. The participle preceded by an article is very common in 
the New Testament. It should generally be translated by a clause 
introduced by a relative pronoun, but may sometimes be translated 
by a noun. 
Examples : 

oi iruTTevovTes those who believe, or believers, 
d (TireLpav the sower. 

They that hunger and thirst after righteousness. 
01 ireLvatvTes^ Kal 8f,ylfS)VT€S^ ttjv 8iKcuoavifr]v. Mt. V. 6. 

This is he that was sown by the way side. 
o^os e(TTLV 6 Trapa Trjv odov arnapeis. Mt. xiii. 19. 

Notice that any number of qualifying words may be inserted 
between the article and the participle. 

2. The Adverbial Participle. 

In this use the verbal side of the participle is most prominent. 

"When a participle is used adverbially it is equivalent to an 
Adverbial Clause modifying some other verb in the sentence. 

Such participles are best translated into English by a suitable 
adverbial clause. The context must decide what kind of adverbial 
clause the participle in question is equivalent to. In the New Testa- 
ment an adverbial participle is generally equivalent to a Temporal ^ 
clause, sometimes to a Causal ^ clause, rarely to a Concessive^ clause. 

Examples : (a)_ A participle denoting the time of the action of the 
main verb, translated by a Temporal clause in English. 

And when he came out, he saw a great multitude. 
Km i^f\6o>v eibiv ttoXvv o^\ov. Mt. xiv. 14. 

And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, 
they knew that he spoke about them. 

Koi aKovtravres oi dp^^tepels Kal ol ^apt(raiot ras napa^oXas avTOV 
eyvaxrav on nepX airwv \eyei. Mt. xxi. 45. 

Generally speaking, the Present Participle denotes action taking 
place at the same time as the action of the main verb, and the Aorist 

^ For these forms see lesson 28. 
'' See appendix on English Grammar. 



ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES 75 

Participle denotes action which took place before the action of the 
main verb. 

Examples. Present Participle : 

He appeared to them as they were fighting. 

&(l)dri avTols fiaxofifvois. Acts vii. 26. 

Aorist Participle : 

And having fasted forty days and forty nights he afterwards 
hungered. 

KaL vrfareva'as rj[j,€pas T€tr(rapa.KovTa Koi TeiraapaKovTa vvKras vtjrepov 
ineivatrev. Mt. iv. 2. 

Present Participle : 

He that has ears to hear let him hear. 
6 e^wv SiTa CLKOveiv aKoveTot. 

Aorist Participle : 
But he that had been healed did not know who it was. 
6 8e laBcls^ oIk jfSfi^ ri's iariv. Jn v. 13. 

(6) Participle denoting the cause of the action of the main verb 
translated by a Causal clause in English. 

Examples : 

And they were all afraid of him, because they did not believe that 
he was a disciple. 

KCLL 7rdvT€S e<j>o^QVVTO aiiTov, /if] 7ri(rT€vovT€S OTi ecTTiv p.a9rjTr)S. 

Acts ix. 26. 

Godliness is profitable for everything, because it has a promise for 
the life that is now, as well as for that which is to come. 

^ 8e eiire^fia npos navra aKJieXi/ios iariv, f TrayyeXtaK txovfra fffl^r T^f 
vvv Kol rfjs fieXKmjarjs. 1 Tim. iv. 8. 

The Participle often denotes the attendant circumstances of an 
action, and may be best translated into English by a finite verb 
joined to that which is the main verb in Greek by "and." 

Examples : 

He answered and said.... 
dnoKpideis eiirev.... 

' See Lesson 28. ^ See Lesson 36. 



76 ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES 

Immediately the father of the child cried out and said.... 
€v6vs Kpd§as 6 Trarrip tov TratSlov cKeyev .... Mk ix. 24. 

Take Mark and bring him with thee. 

MapKov avoKafimv aye jieTa (reavrov. 2 Tim. iv. 11. 

In some cases however it is better to translate the Greek participle 
by an English participle. The method of translation which sounds 
best in English must be chosen. 
Examples : 

In those days John the Baptist came into the wilderness of Judea 
preaching and saying "Repent." 

6V Se TCLis fifiepais eKslvaif wapaylyveToi ^ItadvTjs 6 BanTiaTrjs Kijpvtrirav 
iu Tfi eprjpa Trjs 'lovdaiaf, \eyav MeTavoeire. 

And they were baptised by him in the river Jordan, confessing their 
sins. 

KoX e^airTi^ovTO vn avTOv iv ra 'lop^dvij norafia i^OfioXoyovfievoi ras 
dp-aprias airav. Mt. iii. 6. 

Exercise 25 

Learn Vocabulary 19. 

1. Koi napdycov irapd Trjv SaKaaaav ttjs ToKCKalas eldev Sipava koi 
'AvSpeav tov dSfX(jfroi' Sipavos dpxl>i^dWovTas iv tji BaXdaoTi. 2. kcu. 
r]K6ev Krjpvfra-mv els Tas trvvayayas avrav koi Saipovia CK/SdXXaiv. 3. ttSs 
8uo";(oXa)s^ ol to ;fp^/iara e^ovTes els rrjv ^atriKeiav tov Beov eltTeXevfrovrat. 
4. Koi 'qaav ol (^aydxTfr tovs aprovs 7rei/T-aKj(rxiX«ot avSpes. 5. oi pev olv 
SiairnapivTes 8ir)\6ov fvayyeXi^opevoi tov \6yov. 6. irapayevopevos 8e 
els 'lepova-dXrip eTreipa^e KoWdvBai^ Tots padrjTals, Koi wdvres etfio^ovvro 
avTov, prj •mtTTevovTes oTt ioTiv padrjTTjs. 7. aKovatv be 'Avavlas Toiis 
\6yovs TovTOvs irefTwv e^eyjrv^ev^' koi eyevero <j)6^os piyas eTri* irdvras 
TOVS aKovovTas. 8. Kaitrirapd^av^ avTOV TonvevpaTO d<ddapTOV^Kai<^(Avri- 
vav (fxavij peydXij, i^rjkBev i^ avTOv. 9. koi rjv iv Trj iprjpa) TeiTtrapaKOVTa 
Tfpepas Kol TeircapaKovTa vvktus neipa^opevos vtto tov Saravd. 10. vpels 
oSv dKov<raTe ttjv irapa^oXifv tov inrelpavTos. 11. icai &(j>8ri avTois 
M(av(rrjs Koi ^HXeias avvXdKovVTes peT avTov. 

1 Swx^Xus "with difficulty, hardly." 

^ KoWaaBai. "to join himself," see Lesson 28. 

^ ^itj/v^ev "gave up the ghost," from iK^ixu. 

* iiri "upon." 

^ trrapd^av 1st Aor. part, from (TTapdaaw. 



GENITIVE ABSOLUTE 77 

Partioiplea should be used to translate all the words marked *, 
and also all the English participles. 

1. Those that had preached* the word were scattered abroad. 

2. And passing by the sea of Galilee the disciples taught many people. 

3. Blessed are those that hear* and those that believe* the words of 
this book. 4. Many of the publicans therefore were baptised confess- 
ing their sins. 5. But he answered* and said " How hardly shall ye 
enter into the kingdom of heaven." 6. The sower* soweth the word. 
7. And when he came forth* he saw a great multitude. 8. And all 
those that heard* kept these words in their hearts. 9. But we were 
afraid because we did not believe* that his words were true. 10. This 
is he that was sent* by the king. 11. While they were teaching* the 
people they remained in the temple. 12. And having come out of the 
city he went to another place. 13. But the prophet cried and said* 
"Behold the man that cometh* after me: him shall ye hear." 
14. When the governor therefore heard* this he was afraid and all 
that were* with him. 15. And when they had cast* the net into the 
sea they took many fishes. 16. And when they had come* to Bethlehem 
they tried to enter into the synagogue, but those that kept* it cast them 
out. 17. But while I was walking* through the fields I saw a great 
light from heaven and heard a voice speaking to me. 18. The prophet 
remained in the mountain forty days^ and forty nights writing the words 
of this law. 

LESSON XXVI 

THE GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. INTERROGATIVE AND 
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS 

A noun or pronoun and a participle may stand by themselves in 
the Genitive case if the noun or pronoun does not denote the same 
person or thing as the subject or object of the sentence. 

This construction is called the Genitive Absolute. 

Absolute means " loosed," from the Latin " absolutus ' : phrases of 
this kind are called " absolute " because they are loosed in construction 
from the rest of the sentence. 

1 Days and nights, use Ace. case, Syntax 18. 



78 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 



The Genitive Absolute should generally be translated by an adverbial 
clause in English. The context must decide whether this clause is to 
be Temporal, Causal, or Concessive. Most of the Genitives Absolute 
in the New Testament may best be translated by Temporal clauses. 

Examples : 

And when the devil was oast out the dumb man spoke. 

Kal eK^\r)devTOs TOv baijiovlov i\d\rj<T€v 6 Ka(f>6s. Mt. ix. 33. 

And while the bridegroom tarried they all slumbered and slept. 

^ovL^ovTOS Se 7-ou vvfiffiiov ivvara^av neural kcu indOevSov. 

Mt. XXV. 5. 

The same construction is found in Latin, but the case there used is 
the Ablative. A similar construction is also rarely found in English, 
but in that language the case used is the Nominative. 

Example : " This done, he went home." 

N.B. The rule given above as to the noun or pronoun in a Genitive 
Absolute not referring to the same person or thing as the subject or 
object of the sentence is generally observed in Classical Greek. But it 
is frequently broken in New Testament Greek as the following example 
will show : 

And as he was coming out of the temple, one of his disciples said to 
him... 

Kdi exwopevofievov avTOv ex TOv iepov \iyei aira els tS>v fiaBrfrav avTov... 

Mk xiii. 1. 

The Interrogative Pronoun ris who ? W what ? can take the place 
of either a noun or an adjective. 
It is declined as follows : 

Singular Plural 

Maso. Fern. Neut. Masc. Fein. Neut. 

N. Ti9 Ti rives riva 

A. Tiva Ti Tivas TLva 

G. TWOS tIvos t'ivwv Tivav 

D. tLvi Tivi rlcn t'utl 

Examples of its use : 

Whom do I hear? rivas aKoim; 

What men do I hear? rlvas av6panovs aKoua; 



CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS 79 

The Indefinite Pronoun m is generally translated by " some " or 
"any." 

It is distinguished from m Interrogative by having no accent', and 
by the fact that it cannot stand as the first word in a sentence. 

It is declined in the same way as ris Interrogative. 

Examples of its use : 

Some one says this. toCto Xeyn tk. 

A certain man says this. avBpanos ns tovto Xeyfi. 

The following prepositions present some difficulty : 
Kara, root-meaning down. 

Kara is followed by the Accusative or Genitive case. When followed 
by an Accusative it means " down along, throughout, with regard to, 
according to," when followed by a Genitive it means "down from, 



The meanings underlined are the commonest in the New Testament. 
Examples : 

Take him and judge him according to your law. 

\a^ere avrov Vfieisy Koi Kara rhv vofiav vfjMV Kplvere avTOv, 

Jn xviii. 31. 
He that is not with me is against me. 

6 firf atv ^6r' ep-ov Kar ejLtov ecrrtV. Lk, XI. 23. 

Notice the following special phrases : 

car' ovap in a dream. 

KOTO. Kaipov in due season. 
Kad' fjiiipav daily. 
KOT ISiav privately. 

€iri, root-meaning upon. 

cVi is followed by the Accusative, Genitive or Dative case. It is 
difficult to draw any clear distinction between its meanings with these 
three cases, but with the Accusative it means "upon," "on," or "to" 
often with some idea of motion, with the Genitive it means " upon," 
"on," and occasionally "in the time of," "in the presence of," with the 
Dative it means "on," or "at." 

Examples : 

And other fell on good ground. 

aXKa 6c eireaev ewl Trjv yijv ttjv Koh'jv. Mt. xiii. 8. 

1 It is an " enclitic " ; see page 166. 



80 CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS 

Take my yoke upon you. 

dpare tov ^vyop fiov i(^ vfiaS' ^^- ^^' ^9, 

And seeing one fig tree on the road he went to it. 
teal Idaiv avKTJv fiiav eiri t^s oSoO rjKdep cjt avrriv. 

Mt. xxi. 19. 
I have glorified thee upon the earth. 
iya> ac e86^a<ra iiri Tfjs y^r. Jn xvn. 4. 

In the time of Elisha the prophet. 

fVi 'EXt<raiou tov 7rpo(jyriTov. Lk. iv. 27. 

And they wondered at him. 

Koi iBaijia^ov in avT^. Mk xii. 17. 

Know that it is near at the doors. 

yiva)tTKtT€ on eyyvs etrriv eVl dvpats. Mk xiii. 29. 

npos, root-meaning towards. 

wpos is followed by the Accusative, Genitive or Dative case, but it is 
so rarely followed by a Genitive or Dative case in the New Testament 
that it will be sufiicient to regard it as a preposition followed only by 
the Accusative case. 

It means "towards, up to, to, with regard to," and in certain cases 
"with," it is also used after verbs meaning "to say" where a simple 
Dative would have been expected. 
Examples : 

In the fourth watch of the night he went to them walking on the 
sea. 

TfTaprr] Se ipvXaKJj Trjs vvktos ^\6eu npos avToiis irfpinarmv in\ Tfjv 
BaKaaaav. Mt. xiv. 25. 

And Jesus said to Simon "Fear not." 
KOI flitfv npos TOV 2ipMiva 'irjirovs Mij cjio^ov. Lk. v. 10. 
The word was with God. 

o \6ryos ^v nphs tov deov. Jn i. 1. 

See the Appendix on Prepositions. 

Exercise 26 

A 
Learn Vocabulary 20. 

1. CTi 8e \aKovvTos tov Herpov to pruiara ravra, enecrev to nvevpa to 
&yiov en\ ndvTas Toits aKOVOVTas TOV \6yov, 2. rj yap vap^ €niBvp,ei Kara 
TOV nvevp.aTos Koi to nvfUfM Kara t^s capKos. 3. iyyi/s 8e offirijj AvSSas 



EXERCISES 81 

TTJ loTTTTiy, 01 lioBrfTiu aKovtTavTfs OTi HeTpos eiTTiv ev avTTJ, aTTctrTftXav 8io 
avopas irpos avTov. 4. 6 fie cttI ra TriTpatdrj^ tnrapeLS, ovtos eariv 6 top 
\6yov aaovaVf KaX tvdvs pcra ^apds Xap-^dvav aiirov. 5. ava^atpovvrtav fie 
avrSsv, ifioii SyyeKos Kvpiov <j)aivfTai kut ovap T<f \<i>iri)^ \iyav IlapaXajSe 
TO iraibiov Kai rrpi p,r]Tipa airoC, KOi (peiye els AiyvnTov. 6. i^eir\ri(T<rovTO 
fie oi o;^Xot eVt r^ 8i8a)(jj avTOv, 7. dWa XTjfiyjretrBe^ hvvap,iv, eKOovTOS 
Tov dyiov TTveifiaTOS c<f>' vfids. 8. Ka5' ripjpau fie npotrenapTepovv ofioBv- 
pxihov^ iv T^ Up^. 9, Kai oylfovrai^ tov vlov tov dvdpaTTOv ipxofievov eTTt 
T&v v€<l>e\<av TOV ovpavov. 10, tis ck tow hvo eTroirjtrev to BeKqpu tov 
iraTpos; 11. Tore ■iTpo(Tr\k6cv aiira yvvfj tis aiT-oCtra tl nap' aiiToii, 6 fie 
etnev avTij Ti deXeif ; 

B 

1. eV dp^^iepdajs^Avva Ka\ Ka£a(^a eyeveTO pjjfia deov eVt *ladvvrju tov 
/.a^apiov ev t^ epfjfi(0. 2. effi TavTrj t^ jrerpa otKotoprjaw pov Trjv eicicXij- 
iTiav. 3. oi Se dp\iepets xal to avveSpiov oKov e'^rjTovv yjfevSopapTvpiav^ 
KOTa TOV 'lijo-oC. 4. Ka6' fjpepav rjpr]v irpos vpus ev Tffl iepa xal ovK 
eKparrjaaTe pe. 5. etfiev 6 *l7;a"o£;ff TTvevpa deov KOTa^atvov oxrel Trepi- 
(TTepdv^ ep\6pevov eV avTov, 6. Kol SavpatravTes eirX ttj diroKpltTei avTOV 
eaiyrjo'av'' . 7. 6 pfj i>v per e'pov kot epov eanv. 8. Kai e<T7r\ayxvl<T0ri^ 
en' aiiTOLS Kai edepdnevaev TLvas aiiT&v. 9. vpets Kara ttjv trdpKa KpiVere, 
eyoi fie Kpivo) ovdeva, 10. Kai aTr^X^ew Kad oXi/v T^v noXiv Krfpvtrirtav otra 
enoiTjo'ev avTca 6 'irjaovs. 11. Kai &pprjo'ev^ fj dyeXrj^^ KaTa tov Kprjpvov^^ 
els Trpi 6aKa(raav. 12. Ka\ anrjKBov Tives tS>v a-vv fjplv en\ to pvirfpeXov. 
13. Kvpie, el arv el, Kekevaov pe e\detv npos ire eVi ra vSara. 14. Kai 
el<rri\6ev KaTa to eltodos avTt^^^ ev rfj rjpepa tS>v o-a^ffaTav els ttjv a-vva- 
yayyipr. 15. eViOTara, fii' oXijf vvktos KonidaavTes ovSev eXd/So/xex, eVl 
fie Tco prjpaTi (TOv ^aXdooi^^ Ta biKTva. 16. 6 fie emev npos aiiTOvs 
'Aytovi^effSe^^ elareXdeiv fiia ttjs aTevrjs 6vpas. 

' tA nerpiiS^ "the rooky ground." 

2 "K-fipij/eade, future deponent from Xap^dva. 

' ofioSvpaddv "with one accord." 

* Stj/ovTai, a deponent future given as the future of 6pd<a. 
' \pevSopapTvplav "false witness." 

" iiael irepiffrepdv "like a dove." 
' iaiyiiaav "they became silent." ' 

* iffirXayxvlo'Sv " he was moved with compassion." 

' wpp-qirev "rushed." " ri dyiX-ij "the herd." 

1' Tou Kfrtipvov "the cliff.' '^ rd elui9bs airif "his custom." 

1' Xa\dau "I will let down." " ayavl^eoSe "strive." 

N. 6 



82 FIRST AORIST MIDDLE 

Tlie clauses marked * should be translated hy a Oenitive absolute. 

1. And when the disciples had entered into the ship* Jesus sent 
the multitudes away. 2. Then a certain man came to him and said 
"What art thou doing here?" 3. What power shall we receive when 
the Holy Spirit comes upon us*? 4. The day is drawing near iil which 
the Son of man shall come upon the clouds of Leaven. 5. Take and 
judge these men according to your law. 6. Peter went to him, walking 
upon the water. 7. The disciples began to preach in the days of 
Oaiaphas the high priest. 8. They weiit into the assembly on the 
Lord's day according to custom. 9. I was with you daily in Jerusalem. 
10. The high priest therefore said to the disciples "Who gave you 
authority to do these things?" 11. The Pharisees will say many 
things against the Son of man. 12. When the messengers of Herod 
had departed* the disciples told him privately all that they had done. 
13. But although he sent his own son to them* they would not receive 
him. 14. You were astonished at his promises. 15. And when we 
had toiled all the night* Jesus came to us walking on the sea. 16. And 
while he was holding my hand* I received power to walk. 17. Who is 
able to endure these things? 18. And while we were drawing near to 
the city* the whole nmltitude began to rejoice saying "Blessed' is he 
that oometh in the name of the Lord." 19. In the days of Herod the 
king Joseph went down^ into Egypt taking with him the child Jesus 
and Mary his mother. 

LESSON XXVII 

THE FIRST AND SECOND AORIST MIDDLE. THE 
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. ADVERBS 

The conjugation of the First Aorist Middle is as follows : 
Indicative Imperative 

IKviraiajv I loosed (for my 

Ikiaa own benefit) etc. XSo-oi loose (for thy own 

eXu<raTO Xvcraa-Ba) benefit) etc. 

eKvtratrOe \vtraa$€ 

IKvuavTo \v(ra(rdaa'av 

'Kvtrdadoiv 
' eiKoyrmivos. » koW/Sij. 



SECOKB AORIST MIDDLE §3 

Infinitive Participle 

\v(Taa-dai to loose (for one's Auo-d/iei/or, rj, ov having 

own benefit) loosed (for one's own benefit) 

Notice the presence of the a-a, the distinguishing mark of the First 
Aorist. 

The endings of the Second Aorist Indicative Middle are the same 
as those of the Imperfect Passive. The endings of the other moods are 
the same as the corresponding riioods of the Present Passive. The 
endings are however not added to the present stem, but to the verbal 
stem, as explained on page 43. 

The Second Aorist of yivofim " I become " is as follows : 
Indicative Imperative 

iyevofirjv I was etc. 

eyivov yevQv be etc. 

iyeveTO yeveuoco 

iyevofieda 

iy4ve(T6e yevea-df 

eyevovTO yevetrdcoaav 

y€ve(rd(ov 
Infinitive Participle 

yevfo-Bm to be, to come to yevo/ievos, rj, ov being, com- 

pass ing to pass, happening 

This word is especially common in the New Testament : it is an 
example of a verb which is deponent in the Middle voice. 

The form which occurs most frequently is iyivcTo "it came to pass." 

Most of the Middle forms which are found in the N.T. are deponent, 
and mast therefore be translated by an active verb in English. 

In a few cases verbs are found in the Middle voice which denote 
that the subject is acting upon himself, or in some way that concerns 
himself, or is allowing something to be done to himself. 

Examples are found in sentences 8, 13, 14 in the following exercise A. 

The comparison of Adjectives 

There are three degrees of comparison : 

The Positive degree which denotes simply that the person or thing 
denoted by the noun which the adjective qualifies possesses the quality 
expressed by the adjective. 

6-2 



84 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



The Comparative degree which denotes that the person or thing 
possesses this quality in a higher degree than some other person or 
thing. 

The Superlative degree which denotes that the person or thing 
possesses this quality in the highest degree, or in a very high degree. 

Examples : 

Positive degree. He is a tall man. 

Comparative degree. He is taller than his brother. 
Superlative degree. He is the tallest man in the town. 
The Comparative and Superlative degrees of comparison are ex- 
pressed in Greek by adding repos and totos to the stem of adjectives of 
the 2nd dec, and to the stem of those ending in tjs in the 3rd dec. 

When the last vowel but one of the adjective is short the final o of 
the stem is lengthened to <u. 

Examples : 

Positive Comparative 

SiKaws (SiKaiOTfpor, rj, ov) 

la-xvpos la-xvpoTfpos, t], ov 

iTo^os (TO(^a>Tepos, 77, ov 

a\r)6r]S {oKrjBforTfpos, rj, ov) 

The following adjectives form their degrees of comparison irregularly. 



Superlative 
(StKatdraroff, j;, ov) 
{lirxyparaTos, ij, ov) 
(o-o^mraToy, >;, ov) 
(ahjdfOTaTOs, rj, ov) 



Positive 
dyaBos good 
KOKos bad 

TTokis many 
p.LKp6s little 

fieyas great 



Comparative 
KpfiaaatVy KpsLTTuv better 
X^ipav, rjacrav, rJTTtav 

worse 
TrXfitav, nXeav more 
psiKporepos, eXacrtro)!/, iKuTTav 



Superlative 

{uparuTTos) best 
(xfiptoTos) worst 

TrXfiaros most 
(piKporaros), eXd;(«7- 

Tos least 
p.iyuTTos greatest 



fiei^tav greater 

Adjectives in the Comparative degree ending in a>v are declined as 

follows : 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 

N. fiei(av fiei^ov 

A. pei^ova, /ift'fo) pel^ov 

G. pfi^ovos ptl^ovos 

D. p,eL^ovL pel^ovi 



ADVERBS 



85 



Masc. Fern. 

A. jiei^ovas, /ifi^ovs 
G. fifc^ovav 
D. nei^o(ri 



Neut. 
fiel^ova, fiei^a 



An adjective or adverb in the comparative degree is followed either 
by a noun or pronoun in the Genitive, or by ^ " than" followed by a noun 
or pronoun in the same case as the noun or pronoun with which the 
adjective agrees. 

. Examples : He is wiser than his son. 

c7"0(^(»Tcpdff eartv tov vtov. 
or a-o<pa>T€p6s iimv ij o vlos. 



Adverbs 

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by changing the v of the Gen. 
pi. masc. to I. 

Examples : 

Adjective Adverb 

(^CKos dear {'^iKas) dearly 

a-o<f)6s wise ((ro(f>S>s) wisely 

dXrjdfjs true aKrjdas truly 

The comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs are formed by 
taking the Neuter Singular of the comparative of the adjective to form 
the comparative of the adverb, and the Neuter Plural of the superlative 
of the adjective to form the superlative of the adverb. 
Examples : 

Positive Comparative 

(a-ocjiios) (<TO(j)aiTepov) 

oKTjdms {dKr]6e<TTepov) 

The following forms should be noted. 
Positive Comparative 

/SeXtioi/, KpelaiTov 

better 
KoXKiov better, more 

beautifully 
tj(r(rov, rJTTOv worse 
fiSXKov more 
vXeiov, ifKiov more 



ev well 

Ka\S>s well, beautifully 

kokSs badly 
{jiaKa) 
TToKv much 



Superlative 
(<ro(^a)TaTa) 
(dXrjdeaTaTa) 



Superlative 
{fiiXnarTa) best 

(KaXXtoTo) best, most 

beautifully 
(ijiKio-T-a) worst 
p,aKi<TTa most 
(jrXeioTa) most 



The Comparative and Superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs 



86 EXERCISES 

are not much used in the New Testament. • The Superlative degree is 
scarcely used at all : its place is taken by the Comparative degree. 
Example : 

Being the least of all seeds that are on the earth. 
funp&rfpov hv iravTmv t5>v <rnepjia.T<ov rav c'jri Trjs yrjs. 

Mk iv. 31. 
The forms enclosed in brackets in the tables above are not found in 
the New Testament. 

Exercise 27 

A 
Learn Vocabulary 21. 

1. T^ 8e ejravpiov^, oSotnopovvTaiv eKfivav, Kal rtj iroXfi iyyi^ovTav, 
dve^T) TlsTpos eirl to dafia^ irpotr^v^aadai, 2. ov;(t 17 ^v)(ri TrXetdv ecrrt 
Tjjs Tpo<^rjs ; 3. Koiavve^ovXevcravTo dTTOKTelveiV Tov HavXov. 4. 6 p-el^tov 
iv Vfuv yevitrSa as 6 Vfompot. 5. Kare\a/3oj/ro on avSpanoi aypafifiaTOi 
Kal Idiarai^ eltrlv. 6. vvv yap eyyvrepov ea-Tiv r) o'arrjpia ffpMV rj ore 
eivtfTTevfTapxv, 7. oKr^Qois o^tos 6 avSptairos vlos deov ^v. 8. Kal pi'^as 
Ta dpyvpia els tov vaov dve^^iapyi&ev, Ktu dweKdoiv aTrrfy^aTO^. 9. 6 Se 
fuxparcpos iv Tr[ PairiXeia rav evpavSiv p,et^wv ixvTov ccrrlv. 10. vvvl Se 
fiivei TTLtTTis, iXiTLS) dyaTTTj • rti rpia raOra, fiei^av Si Tovratv rj dydinq. 
11. ipxfTai 6 Ia-xyp6rrep6s p.ov oiriam pov. 12. pei^ova rovrtov oijfd, 
13. Kat vvv Ti /ieXXets,' ^dnTia-ai, Kal dnoKova'ai rds ctpaprias aov, iwiKa- 
\eardp,ev6s to Svopa tov Kvplov. 14. irdvTfs ol iraripes TjpSiv i^anTiaavTo 
els TOV McouoTji' iv Trj vetfjeXr) Kal iv Trj BaKda'a'Tj. 

B 

1. oi 8e p^el^Qv ^Kpa^av Xeyovres Kupte, eXerja-ov r)pds. 2. trv Kvpie, 
dvdSei^ov^ TOV avdpaiTrov bv e^eXi^at^ 3. tj ^atTiXiatya vdrov^ ifXBev ck t5>v 
TrepaTtnv ' ttjs yrjS oKoCfrat Ti]v (To<piav ^oXopSivos, Kal Iboii nXelov SoXop,&vos 
aSe. 4. ovSels ewi^dXXei enl^Xripa^ poKovs dyvd(j>ov^ inl IpaTm naXaia- 

1 7T) Si iiraipior "And on the next day," iiraipiov is an adverb meaning 
"to-morrow," tj agrees with itp^pq. understood. 

2 t6 3S/ia "the house top." 

* AypdnfiaToi. Kal ISiurai "unlettered and ignorant." 

* dTTTJ-yfaTO middle aorist from ii7rd7xw "I hang." 
^ Avadei^ov " show." 

* ij pacrtXuT(fa v6tov "the queen of the south." 
' ix Tuv trepkruiv " from the furthest parts." 

? MpXvM^l', t6, "a thing put on, a patch." 
" fidKovs d^vd^oi; "of undressed cloth." 



CONTRACTED VERBS IN aco AND Ota 87 

atpei yap ro TrXrjpatijLa auTov^ aTro rov ip,arinv Koi ^eipov or-)^l(Tp.a yiveTat, 
5. dp^rjv Xeyft) vply e0' oa'ov^ e7roLr}(TaT€ evt^ TOVTiav rav d8€\<jiS)v povTav 
eXap^iOTO)!', epot eTroirja-aTe, 6. koX yivcTai ra etrxoxa Tov dvOpairov CKeivov 
^eipova rav irpaiTcov. 7. eya> yap elpt 6 ekd^ttTTOs ratv OTrocrToXcoi/. 

8. el ovv ovde eKd)(^L(TTOv byvatrBe, ri wept Ttov Xotirajv pepipvare^; 

9. Xeyo) vpXv pet^av iv yevvr)TQis^ yvvaiKoiv 'la>dvov oiidels efrriv 6 be 
ptKpOTepos ev rfj ^atriXela tov Seov pei^atv avTov eariv. 10. TreiBap^elv 
Set 6ea p^Wov 7j dvSpairots. 

1. And when Solomon had prayed he departed out of the temple. 
2. The younger of the sons would not work for' his father. 3. The 
robbers hanged themselves, for those that pursued them were more 
than they. 4 "We called upon the name of the Lord, for he is stronger 
than all the kings of the earth. 5. He chose Simon whom he surnamed 
Peter. 6. Behold, love is greater than faith. 7. Why then do ye 
delay to go to Jerusalem, for behold a greater than Solomon is there 1 
8. We ought to obey the king rather than the priest. 9. They say 
that these days are worse than the days of our fathers, 10. Ye took 
counsel together to slay the wisest of men. 11. He that is least shall 
become the greatest. 12. But he cried out the more "Behold what 
things I suffer at the hands of my enemies." 13. Truly I perceive 
that there is a division among them. 14. We cannot do the least of 
these things. 15. Inasmuch as* thou hast done this thou hast done 
worse than all thy brethren. 16. But he answered them more wisely 
than his father. 



LESSON XXVIII 

CONTRACTED VERBS ENDING IN a<o AND oo.. 

The rules for the contraction of the vowels in these verbs may be 
stated as follows : 

a followed by o or cB becomes a. 
a followed by f or 77 becomes a. 

1 tA irKiipiiipa airoxi " that which fills it up." 

"- i4 So-oi/ "inasmuch as." ^ hi dat. from eXs "one." 

■> pepipvare "do ye take anxious thought," see the next lesson. 

5 yevvriToh "the offspring." 

8 ireiflopxe'" "to obey," followed by a Dative. 

' uTT^p followed by a Genitive. * Sn. 



88 



CONTRACTED VERBS IN aa 



i is generally written subscript, except occasionally in the Present 

Infinitive Active. 
followed by a long vowel becomes a. 
o followed by a short vowel becomes ov. 
o followed by any combination with t, whether subscript or not, 

becomes o«, except in the pres. inf. act. 

Present Indicative Active of n/ido) "I honour" 



Present Ind. 
Tifuo (Tiiida) 
Ti/ias (rifidfis) 
Tifi^ (nfidfi) 
Ttfiafxev {rifidofiev) 
Ttfiare (rt/idere) 
TijiSnTi {rifidovtri) 

Present Inf. 
Tifiav {niideiv) or n/iav 



Present Imper. 

TLfia {rifiac) 
n/idra {Tijiaira) 

Tijiore (TtfidfTe) 
Tifidraaav {TifiairtiXTav) 
rifiaivTav (niiaovTau) 

Pres. Participle 
Tifiav, ato'a, ant 
TijiavTos etc. 



Imperfect Indicative Active 

erifiav (fVi'/xaoi') eTifiSifJutv (infidoiifv) 

eTifias (e'rifiaes) iTifiare (cVi/idere) 

irijia (e'Tifiae) e'riiuov (fTifiaov) 

Present Indicative Passive 

Present Inf. Present Participle 
TtfiatrSat TtfioifieuoS) rj, ov 



Present Ind. 


Present Inipe 


TifiSoftai 




ni4 


riixS) 


Ttiidrtu 


TifidaOa) 


TifiaiifOa 




Tifiaa-Be 


TL^aadc 


Tip.a>VTai 


Ttiida-Baa-av 




TifidaOau 



Imperfect Indicative Passive 

fTifiafiriv eTi/iaufda 



erifiay 
irijicLTO 



€TiflStVTO 



CONTRACTED VERBS IN Oft) 



89 



Present Indicative Active of (l>avep6to "I make manifest" 

Present Imper. 



Present Ind. 
(jiavepSi {<l>avep6a)) 
^avepois {(fiavepofts) 
<j>avepoi (^avspdei) 
<^av€povpcv {(jiavepoofiev) 
(pavepQVTe {<l)av€p6ere) 
<j)av(poii<Ti (<f)avep6ov(Ti) 

Present Inf. 
<f)avepovv {^avepoetv) 



<j)avepov {(pavipoe) 
(pavepovTia (KJiavepoeTOi) 

(pavepovTi ((j)av€p6fTe) 
tpav€povT<o<7av (^avepoeroxrav) 
KfjavepovvTOiv (ipavepoourav) 

Present Participle 
(jiavcpatv, <j)avepova'a, (jiavepovv 
cjiavcpovvros etc. 



Imperfect Indicative Active 

€<l)av€povv (e^avepoov) efjjavepovpev {4(pavep6opfv) 

cffiavipovs {i<j)av4poes) e<l>avfpovTe (e<j)avep6eTc) 

etpavepov {e^avepoe) e<f>ajf€pouv {^<pav€poov) 



Present Ind. 
<l)avepovpai 
(j^avepoi 
(fjavepovTat 
(pavepovp^da 
(pavepova-de 
(jiavepovvTai 



Present Indicative Passive 

Present Imperat. 



(fiavfpov 
(pavepovo'Oa) 

(pavfpovirdf 

(pavepovadaya-av 

(jiavipovaBcov 



Present Inf. 
(jjavepovtrdm 



Present Participle 
(pavepovtievos, rj^ ov 



Imperfect Indicative Passive 

€<j)av€povfirjv ecftavepovpeOa 

etpavepov e<l>avepov(rO€ 

i(pavepovTO etjjavepovVTO 

The verb fdo> has rj for a in the contracted forms. 
Present Ind. f£ fS* fn, i&pev f^re ^Sxri. 
Pres. Inf. f^v. 



90 EXERCISES 

The Future and Aorist of verbs in am and o<o are formed by lengthen- 
ing the last vowel of the stem before adding the endings. 

Present. Put. Act. Aor. Act. Fut. Mid. 

nfida) TiyLTftna iniirjira Tifirjaofiai 

<jiavep6a) (jiavepaKTco €<j)avepa}(ra <f>av€pa(rofiai 

Fut. Pass. Aor. Mid. Aor. Pass. 

Tiiuf6r]irojt,ai eTijir)crajiiqv iTip,rj6r)V 

^avepioB-qiTOfiai f<j)avfp<ocrdpriv i<pavepa>6r)v 

Exercise 28 

Learn Vocabulary 22. 

1. iirwddvero irap' alrav nov 6 KpiiTTOs yevvarai. 2. 6e6s ovk i(m 
vtKpav oKKa ^atvTtav, navres yap avra fwo"tv. 3. ovtos 6 \6yos oil <\>avf~ 
povrai ffplv^ 4. eXeyov ttjv e^odov avTov fjv rffieWcv^ wXrjpoiJv ev 
lepovtraXrjfi, 5. Si^fUi/ 'Iwavou, dyanas fie irXeov rovrav ; 6. <pojvrj 
^oatvTOs ev rfj eprj^ua. 7. iv ttj avrri atpa rjyaXXtcavTo ol fiadrjTai. 8. o 
yap Oebs TaTreivoi Toiis vyjrovvras eavTovs, Toiis 5e raireivovvTas eavTOvs 
i-^oi. 9. T&Tf earavpovv triiv airra 8vo Xrja-Tds. 10. Ti pe ipmras nepi 
Tov dyadov; 11, \4yei avTcd 6 ^lijtrovs Hopevov, 6 vlos trov f^. 12. o fie 
6e6s f'iaa-e ndvra to. fBvrj irepirraTelv ev rais oSols avTav. 13. Alvea, 
larai ire 'Irjaovs Xpurros. 14. ovk e'ia 'IijiroOf to Saifiovia \a\eXv, 

1. The disciples were making manifest the things which they had 
heard. 2. We did not permit them to crucify the slave. 3. The king 
humbled those that were exalted. 4. They are inquiring if the servant 
is healed. 5. Why do you allow them to live in our city ? 6. Do ye 
desire to love the Lord your God, ye sons of men ? 7. The voice 
said "Cry,", and he answered "What shall I cry?" 8. Now is fulfilled 
the word of the prophet. 9. When Jesus was born in Bethlehem wise 
men came to worship him asking where the king of the Jews must be 
born. 10. God justifies the sons of men by faith and not by works. 
11. And all men rejoiced greatly that the man that had the devil was 
healed. 12. Rejoice greatly, for thy son liveth. 13. Humble your- 
selves therefore under^ the mighty ^ hand of God, for he wiU exalt you 
in due season. 14. I manifested thy name to this people and I will 
manifest it to their children. 

^ iJlieWev a past tense with a double augment from pMWu. 
2 " Under" ^tto followed by an Accusative. 
' " Mighty " KpoToiAs. 



PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES 91 

LESSON XXIX 

THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES 

The Perfect tense does not occur very frequently in the New 
Testament. Its use denotes that the action of the verb is to be re- 
garded as brought to its appropriate conclusion at the time of speaking 
in such a way that its results still remain in action. 

The Perfect has therefore as much to do with Present as with Past 
time, since it describes the. present result of a past action. 

The Pluperfect or Past Perfect is the past tense of the Perfect. 

There is no exact equivalent to the Greek Perfect in. English; the 
so-called English Perfect formed by the auxiliary verb "have" is the 
nearest equivalent that can be given, but it will not always serve to 
translate a Greek Perfect. 

The conjugation of the Perfect and Pluperfect of \va is as follows : 







Active Voice 




Perfect Ind. 


Pluperfect Ind. 


Perfect Inf. 


Perfect Part. 


\4\vKa 




iXeKvKeLv 


XeXuKcVat 


XfXvKws, XeXvKvla, 


XAuxaj 




f'XeXuKfif 




XeXuKOff 


\eXvKe 




eXeXuKet 






\e\vKafxev 




fXfXvKCl/ifV 






XeXvKare 




f'XeXuKftTf 






XeXuKact 




eXe\vK€i(rav 






The Perfect Participle Active 


is declined as 


follows : 


Nom. 


Sing 


;. XeXvKiis 


XfXVKvIa 


XeXvKos 


Gen. 


Sing. 


XeXufcdroy 


\fXvKvias 


XeXvKOTos 


Dat. 


PI. 


XeXuKOo-t 


XeXvKviats 


XeXuKdo"t. 



The other cases can be easily formed from thesa 
Middle and Passive Voice 



Perf. Ind. 


Plup. Ind. 


Perf. Inf. 


Perf. Part. 


XeXvfiat 


iXeXviiriv 


XfXiaSm 


XfXu/ieVor, ij, ov 


XiXvaai 


eXeXv(ro 






XeXvTOL 


eXeXvTO 






XeXvfieOa 


eXeXvfifBa 






XeXva-de 


iXeXvadf 






XfXvvTai 


iXfXvvTO 







92 PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES 

There is a Perfect Imperative, but it is very seldom used in the 
New Testament. It is given in the complete table of verbs at the 
end. 

Note that the Perfect participle passive always has the accent on 
the last syllable but one. 

It will be noticed that in all moods of the Perfect tense and also in 
the Pluperfect tense the first consonant of the verb followed by the 
letter s is placed before the verb. 

This is called Reduplication. 

The Pluperfect has an augment in addition, although this is often 
omitted in the New Testament. 

Verbs beginning with a vowel, two consonants (except a mute and a 
liquid) or a double consonant, have no reduplication, but have an augment 
instead. 

Verbs beginning with a rough mute (</>, x, 6) have the correspond- 
ing smooth mute (tt, k, t) in the reduplication. 

Examples : 

Present Perfect 

AfiapTavto ^iMaprrjKa 

(TTfWai eaToKxa 

TrXrjpoa TreTrXrjpajKa 

<l>i\4a wecpiKriKa 

Beaofiai Tt6eap.ai 

Note that the characteristic consonant of the Perfect active is k. 

The Second, or Strong, Perfect 

Some Perfects are formed by adding the endings direct to the stem 
without K, these are called Strong Prefects, or Second Perfects. 
The following are examples : 



Present 


Perfect 


CLKOVa 


aKTjKoa 


yivoimi 


yeyova 


ypdtjita 


yiypa(^a 


^pXOjxai. 


eKrjXvda (from stem f'X) 


Kpa^o 


KSKpaya 


KpinTio 


KfKpvtjia 


irdcr\(ii 


ninovda 


nfida 


vciroiBa 



PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES .93 

The verb Xa/ifiaKco and the stem ip (generally given under Xeya) begin 
their Perfect tenses with el instead of a reduplication. 

Present Perfect Active Perfect Passive 

Xaii^dva eiXij^a etXij/i/int 

Stem ip ftprjKa f'iprffiai. 

Examples of the use of the Perfect from 
the New Testament 

Perfect Indicative 

Ye have filled Jerusalem with your teaching. 
7re7rXj;pa)K07-€ riji/ 'ifpovaaKr/p, Ttjs 8i8a)(rjs vp.S>v. 

Acts V. 28. 
I have fought the good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept 
the faith. 

Tov KciKov aymva rjyavicrjuu, Tov Spofiov T€T4\fKa, rrjv nltrnv TeTr)prjKa. 

2 Tim. iv. 7. 
Pluperfect 

For it had been founded on the rock. 

TiBffiiKiaTO yap e'ni Trjv irerpav. Mt. vii. 25. 

Participle 

Having been filled with all knowledge. 
Tre7rXr)pa>ii(voi Trno-i/r Trjs yvaxreios. Rom. XV. 14. 

To all that love his appearing. 
7ra(7i Tois rfyairrjuoai Trjv ini<f>av(iav airrov. 

2 Tim. iv. 8. 

Note that in all these examples stress is laid on the completeness 
and permanence of the action described. 

A good example of the exact meaning of the Perfect participle will 
be found in sentence 9 in tlie following exercise. 

This should be contrasted with the meaning of the Present participle 
of the same verb which is used in sentence 10. 

Another good example is found in sentence 14 where icrravpa/ievov 
denotes a permanent quality — " one who has been crucified." 

It is impossible to render this meaning exactly in English, as has 
been said above- If the Aorist participle aravpadcis had been used in 



94 EXERCISES 

tBia sentence it would simply have denoted the historical fact that 
Christ was crucified. 

The tenses of the Greek Verb have now all been given. To repeat 
the first person singular of the Indicative mood of each of these tenses 
is called giving the parts of the verb. A list of the parts of the verbs 
occurring most commonly in the New Testament is given at the end. 
The student should now begin to learn those which are given at the 
head of each exercise. 

Exercise 29 

Learn Vocabulary 23. 

Before doing this exercise the parts of the following Verbs should be 
learnt: ^dXXo> (34), yivojiai. (41), cpxoiiat (68), Xafi^dvai (50), Xfyw (71), 
opdio (72). 

1. "EWrjvas elirfjyayeu els to lepoVf Koi KeKoiv(OK€v tov ayiov roirov, 

2. tTTCD^bs Se Tis ovo/iaTi Ad^apos e/3t|3Xi;ro npos t6v irvXava^ auTov. 

3. naiSia, ea-xdrr] &pa eariv, /cat xadajs TjKovtraTe on ca>Ti\puTT0S^ epxerai K.a\ 
vvv avTixpttTTOi TToXXot yeyovaaiv^ 4. Xeyft aiira 6 IrjtroiiSf "Ort eatpands 
/te 7rf7ri<TT€VKas; pajidpioi oi pi) Ihovrei Koi 7ri(rrev(ravTes. 5. ore Si 
yiyova avr)p,.KaTripyrjKa^ to tov vrjTriov*. 6. Km dne}\.6ov(ra fli tov oIkov 
avTrjs eSpev to jrmSiov /Sf/SXij^e'vow eVi Tr)v kXIvjiv koi to Satpoviov e|eXi)- 
\v66s. 7. TTfTrXrjpcDTai 6 Kaipos Kot ^yyiKev ij jiatriKela tov Btoi. 
8. epxeTat Trpos avTOU Mapta rj KaTiovpevjj MaydaKrjvrjy d0 rjs daLpovia 
ewTa e^fXijXuflei. 9. Koi iroXXa (rapara t&v Kcieoipripevav dyiav rfyip6r)<rav. 

10. ol padrjToi avTOv vvktos iXBovTcs €K\€\jrav ai/roVy Tjpav KoipMpevav. 

11. 'lovdaiovs ovdev TjSiKTjKa as Ka\ (TV koWlov eirtyiyvoitTKeis. 12. nnpair- 
/lof v/ids oiiK et\Ti<j)€v el pj) dvBpiiirivos^. 13. d yap 6eos etpTjue tovto 8id 
tTTopaTos ndvTtav t&v irpoCJjrjTtav, 14. fjpels 6e KrjptKrfropev UpLOTov 
earavpajpevov. 

1. The days of the kingdom of heaven have been fulfilled. 2. He 
has not injured thee nor thy friends. 3. We have seen and testified 
that this is the prophet spoken of by Moses. 4. Then the young men 
were astonished, for great fear had taken hold upon them. 5. The 

' Tv\iiv, Qvos, 6 "a door." 

^ ivHxpKTTos, ov, 6 "Antichrist." 

' Kar^ipyriKa perf. from Karafiyiui "I bring to nought, I put away." 

* tA toO vtitIov "ohildiBh things." 

' dLvdpiiirivoi "proper to a man, such as a man can bear." 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 93 

Lord hath spoken evil concorning thee. 6. They have defiled the house 
of the Lord with dead bodies. 7. Thou must proclaim the things 
which thou hast seen and heard. 8. The governor asks what the slaves 
have done. 9. Ye have suffered many'things at the hands' of the Jews. 

10. Then Pilate answered saying "What I have written, I have written." 

11. But when I became king I walked in the ways of my fathers. 

12. The poor and the blind are cast^ at the doors of the rich. 13. 
Lord, in thee have we trusted. 14. They found that the devils had 
gone out. 15. I have told you the words of the kingdom, but ye have 
not believed me. 16. These that have kept the faith shall receive the 
crown of life which the Lord promised to those that love him. 17. They 
beheld the temple filled with the glory of the Lord. 

LESSON XXX 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 

The forms of the Subjunctive Mood are as follows : 

Pres. Sub. Act. 1st Aor. Sub. Act. 2nd Aor. Sub. Act. 

\vai \va-Qj jSaXo) 

Xvrjs \v(rris fiaKjis 

Xvrj \v(rT] ^^^Jt 

Xvcofiev \va'<i>iJ,€v ^dXcofiev 

\vrjTe XvtnjTe 0d\T)Te 

\va)(Ti Xvaoxri jSaXcucri 

It will be seen that the endings of the Subjunctive are the same in 
all these tenses, but that in the 1st Aorist the letter o- is placed between 
the ending and the stem, and in the 2nd Aorist the endings are added 
to the verbal, and not to the present stem. The endings are the same 
as those of the Present Indicative Active with the exception that the 
vowels are lengthened and 4 is written subscript. 
There is no Future Subjunctive. 

Pres. Sub. Pass, or Mid. 1st Aor. Sub. Mid. 2nd Aor. Sub. Mid. 
XviOfjLaL Xt$(r&}/iat /3aXeo/xac 

XiJ,i; XixTTj iS"^!? 

\vr)Tm XvoTirai ^d\r)Tai 

Xvm/ieda XvnafieBa ^dKafitda 

\vija-6e Xva-rja-dc ^akqaSe 

Xvwirat XvfTonfTaL ^aKavrai 

1 " At the hands " 5id f oU. by Gen. ^ "Are cast," use the perfect pass. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 



In these tenses the endings are the same as those of the Pres. Ind. 
Pass, or Mid. with the exception that the vowels are lengthened. 

l8t Aor. Sub. Pass. 2nd Aor. Sub. Pass. 



\vda) 


(j>avS> 


Xvd^s 


<t)av^s 


\v6S 


(jjav^ 


Xvdafitv 


<j)avS)iiev 


XvdfJTe 


(f>avr)Te 


\v6S)a-i, 


(^avSatri 



■Jfote that the endings of the 1st and 2nd Aor. Subjunctive Pass, 
are the same as those of the Pres. Sub. Act. ; but the characteristic 6 of 
the 1st Aor. Pass, is inserted before the endings, and in the 2nd Aor. 
Pass, the endings are added to the verbal stem. In both Aorists the 
endings have the circumflex accent on the long vowel. 

It is impossible to give any single English equivalent to the Sub- 
junctive mood, as the use of the Greek Subjunctive is much wider than 
that of the English. It is better therefore not to attach any such 
meaning to it as "that I may loose" etc., as is done in some grammars, 
since this would cover only a portion of its uses. 

Four of the principal uses of the Subjunctive in the N.T. are as 
follows : 

(1) It is used in clauses which express the purpose of the action 
of the main verb. (Final clauses.) 

Such clauses are introduced by iva or on-ojr "in order that" or "that " 
if affirmative, and by fi^ or ha fir) "in order that not" or "lest" if 
negative. 

Examples : 

He came that he might bear witness to the light. 

rjXdev Lva fiaftrvpTjiTTj nepX tov (^(urdy. 
They are going away that they may not see the battle, or lest they 

should see the battle. 
anepxovTai, tva fifj (or prj) (Smcn ttju fia)(rjv. 

He was crying with a loud voice that all might hear. 

fieydXr] tj] (poyvrj cKpa^c tva ttglvt^s aKOvao-u 

As we have already seen (page 37) clauses of this kind may also be 
expressed by an Infinitive. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 97 

Either the Present or the Aorist Subjunctive may be used in these 
clauses, the Present if a continuoup or repeated action is spoken of, 
the Aorist if a single action is spoken of. The Aoriat is used more 
frequently than the Present. There is no "sequence of tenses," as in 
Latin, and, if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense, it does not 
follow that the verb in the dependent clause must be in the Aorist 
Subjunctive. 

(2) The Subjunctive is used in all clauses introduced by a relative 
pronoun which does not refer to a definite person or thing ; i.e. all 
clauses in which the word "ever" may be introduced in English after 
the relative pronoun. 

In these clauses the word av or edv is placed after the relative 
pronoun in Greek and the verb is in the Subjunctive. 

Example : 
Whoever believes on the name of the Lord shall be saved. 
Off &v irKTTevo'Tj els to ovofia tov Kvpiov <ra>6r]a-€Tat. 

Clauses introduced by orav (ote Sv) "whenever" and ottou Sv 
"wherever" and referring to the future also have their verb in the 
Subjunctive mood. 

Examples : 

Whenever ye depart go into the city. 
orav direXOrjTe elirfp^eade els rqv iroXti/. 
Wherever the Gospel is preached many will hear. 
OTTOV hv TO evayyeXiOV Ki)pv(TfTr}Tai ttoWol aKowcovo"!. 

Clauses introduced by ewj depending on a verb denoting future or 
habitual action and referring to the futiu^e also have their verb in the 
Subjunctive, generally with &v. Such clauses may also be introduced 
by eojff ov or eajs otov without ap. 

Examples : 

There remain until ye depart thence. 

f Kei fiivere ews &v i^i\6r)Te 'iKfXQev. Mk vi. 10. 

And goeth after that which is lost, until he' find it. 

Kai TTOpeveTai eVt ro dn-oXaiXos etas evpjj avTO. Lk. XV. 4. 

Tell the vision to no man until the Son of Man is risen from the 
dead. 

priSevl eiirrjTe to Spapa eas oS 6 vios tov avBpairov e'k veKpwv iyepdrj. 

Mt..xvii. 9. 



98 THE SUBJUNCTIVE 

(3) The Hortatory Subjunctive. The Subjunctive is used in 
the 1st person plural when the speaker is exhorting others to join him 
in the doing of an action. 

Example : Beloved, let us love one another. 

dyawriToi, dyaira/ifv dWrjKovs. 1 Jn IV. 7. 

(4) The Deliberate Subjunctive. The Subjunctive is used in 
deliberative questions, when a person asks himself or others what he is 
to do. 

Example : What shall we do ? 

Ti iroajtmixtv ; Lk. iii. 10. 

Note that the Subjunctive is always negatived with /x^. 
Exercise 30 

Before doing this exercise learn the parts of Sya (1), aKovm (2), 
bf)(oiJ,ai (8), dirotTTfWa (35), Kpivto (43), Ktjpvcraa (28). 

Learn Vocabulary 24. 

1. KoKas dQercire ttjv evToXrjv rov 6eov, iva rijv irapdhofriv vfiav 
•njprjaTJiTe. 2. Sytufuv dWa^ov^ els ras i-)(opAvas KapoiToKeK^, Iva kcu 
€K€i KTjpv^o). 3. 6s hv fv Tmv ToiovTav natditav de^rai enl T& ovofiari 
pov, e/16 di)(eTai- Koi of &v epe de';(i;rai, ovk eiie de^^erai, dWa tov ajrooT«'- 
Xavrd pc. 4. fiij Kplvtre Iva prj KpiBrJTe. 5. or yap &v dAj/ ttjv ^xV" 
avTov o'OKraL dnoXetTeL avrrjv. 6. Kal ravs 6<l>6aKpovs avrav inappva'av^f 
pi) TTOT-f XbatTiv Tols 6<t>6dKpols. 7. e'aw dijO'DS* f»ri Tr/s y^r eorot 
Scdcpevov iv Tols ovpavois. 8. Kvpioi, rl pe 8fl jroielv tva arada; 
9. aiyrov dKoi(reiT0€ Kara vdvTa 0(ra &v XoX^ot; irpos vpds. 10. \iyapev 
ipa^ Hoifiirapev rd Kaxd, Iva eK6^ rh dyaBd; 11. TravTorre yap tovs 
iTTaxovs «x*''^ M*^' favTmv, Ka\ orav 6i\rjTi Svvao'Se avTols fv jroajirai. 
12. (jtevye els Aiyvirrov koi XaBi^ exel eas dv eiiro) crot. 13. optola eoTiK tj 
/Sao'tXcia tS>v oipavwv fu/i.ij' fjv Xa/3ov(ra yvvrj eveKpvsjrfv els dKevpov (rdra 
Tpta^ etas ov e^vpatdij^ oKov. 

1. The Pharisees disregarded the commandment of God that they 
might keep their own tradition. 2. Whatever I say to you privately 
that proclaim to all the people. 3. What shall we do then ' shall we 

' iXKaxoS "elsewhere." ' ixof"^"'' Kup/nr&Keis "the next villages." 

' Kappiu "I olos-e." ■* 5i)ffi)S from Siia. 

' a^o, then, in questions denoting surprise. 

' tffSi, imperative ind. sing, from eXvai "to be.'' 

' iipii, ■■!)%, ii "leaven." 

' dXeipov adra rpia " three measures of meal." 

" fvpSa "I leaven." 



OF CONTRACTED VERBS 



99 



continue in sin that grace may abound^ ? 4. Whenever ye see the 
Gentiles in the Holy Place know that the end^ of the age draweth nigh. 

5. "Wherever the Gospel is preached those that believe shall be saved. 

6. Send away the children to the wilderness that the robbers may not 
kill them. 7. God sent many prophets that they might teach this 
people. 8. Let us eat and drink, for we must depart quickly. 9. Let 
us go elsewhere that we may exhort the multitudes. 10. Whenever 
we will we can do good to the poor. 11. Remain in the house until I 
call thee. 12. We have cut down all the trees that the enemy may not 
eat the fruit. 13. I will not drink wine lest I cause my brother to 
stumble. 14. I beseech thee to guard my sheep until I find that which 
is lost. 15. Whosoever wishes to be greatest among you let him humble 
himself as a little child. 16. Lord, reveal thy power to us that thy 
name may be glorified. 17. Bring the garments to me that they may 
be carried to the widows. 

LESSON XXX[ 

SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONTEACTED VERBS AND OF «>■'. 
FURTHER USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE 



The Present Subjuncti\ 


■e of the contracted verbs is as follows : 




Active 




<l)i\a} 


TlflM 


(j^avepS) 


(jiiXrjs 


rijihi 


<f>avepois 


KJjlXfj 


^W 


(jiavepoi 


(jjiXafiev 


Tt/XWjLtei' 


(j>avip5>ji.ev 


cl>iXrJTe 


TlftCLTf 


(f)avfpSiT€ 


(jitKSxri 


Passive and Middle 


<j>avepSi(n, 


(j>iKS)fuu 


Tt/iS/iai 


(pavcpa/tai 


0tXn 


TlIM 


<f)avfpoi 


(fiiXrJTai, 


Tifiarat 


(jiavepSiTaL 


(piKafiiBa 


niia/ieda 


<^avepajie6a 


(fnXJja-Be 


Tifiatrde 


(pavepoMTdf 


(piKavTai 


TLfiaVTOL 


tpavepavrat 



For the rules of contraction see pp. 9, 87, 88. 

1 "I abound" iripiaaeia. ' "end" ri\os -ovs, ri. 



7—2 



100 FURTHER USES 

The subjunctive of flfit is as follows : 

Singular Plural 

ij Shti 

Further uses of the Subjunctive 

The Subjunctive is used in all conditional clauses introduced by 
edv "if" referring to the future. 
Example : 

If ye do not repent ye shall all perish in like manner. 
eav fifj fieTavorjtnjTC, wdvTes aaavTos aTroXcicr^e. Lk. XUl. 5, 
The Aoiist Subjunctive (not the Present) is used with fu) in 
prohibitions. 

Example: Do not get gold for your purses. 

fjLTf KTTja-r]6€ ^pvtrov els ras ^covas vfi&v. Mt. X. 9. 

The Present Imperative (not the Aorist) with /xi; may also be used 
to express a prohibition. 

The Present Imperative generally denotes a command to cease to 
do an action already begun, in accordance with the principle that the 
moods of the Present tense denote action in progress. 

Example : 

And they all wept and lamented her. But he said to them " Do 
not continue to weep ; she is not dead, but sleepeth." 

SKXatxtv 8e Trai/rep /cat eKoirrovTO avTTjv. 6 fie elnev Mfj KXaierc, ovk 
antBavev aWa Ka6ev8ei. Lk. viii. 52. 

The Aorist Subjunctive generally denotes a command not to begin 
to do an action. 

Example : 

Whenever therefore thou doest alms, do not sound a trumpet before 
thee. 

OTav oSv Troifjs ek(riji,o(rivr}v , /itj (raXTriVjf eiinpoirdfv crov. 

Mt. vi. 2. 
In Acts xviii. 9 we have an example of both ways of expressing a 
prohibition in the same verse : 

Do not fear, but speak and hold not thy peace. 
fir) ^o^ov, cii^a XaXei Koi fx^ (7Lai7rr](T7]s, 

The double negative oi /iij is used with the Aorist Subjunctive and 



OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE 101 

occasionally with the Future Indicative in the sense of the Future 
Indicative with ov, but with more emphasis. 
Examples : 

Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out. 
Tov cp\6fievov Trpos fiC ov iifj CKjSaXo) e^(o. Jn vi. 37. 

If I must die with thee, I will not deny thee. 
eav 8eTf jue avvairoOavelv froi, ov firj ae apvTjirofiai. 

Mk xiv. 31. 
Frequently however, especially in the Gospels, it is used simply as 
a negative future without any special emphasis. 

Exercise 31 

Learn the parts of Trpdo-o-to (29), deXa (11), yiyvacrKa (55), ia-6ta> (69), 
TTlVcO (49). 

Learn Vocabulary 25. 

1. KvpiCj eav diXrjs bvva<Tal pe Kadaplaai. 2. €(j}aivrfa-ev de llaOXof 
pfydXji (fiaivfj Xeytov Mr/Sei' npa^Tji treavrio kokov, anavTes yap icrpev ivBabe. 
3. iav pri 7r€pi(r<rev(Tjj vpoiv rj dtKatotrvvjj irXetov ratv ypappariav Koi 
^apKTaicov, ov p^ fltTeXdrjre els ttjv ^atriKfiav rStv oiipauav, 4. prj oZv 
pepipvT]tTr]Te eh rtjv aSpiov. 5. hs &v pfj Se^rjrai Tfjv ^airiXeiai' tov Beov 
as waidlov, ov pf] eltreXdrj els avrrjv. 6. Xeyft) yap vpiv otl ov pr] <j>dy(6 
avTo eas OTOV jrXrjptoBfj iv TJj /SacriXcia toC dcov. 7. edv ns fleXi; ro BiXifpa 
aiiTOv Troteiv, yvwa-erai irepi rrjs didax^s iroTepov^ eK Oeov iarriv. 8. pi) 
vopitrrjre oti rfkBov KoraKvaai rov vopov rj rovs Tvpo^rjras. 9. vpeis eare 
TO okas Trjs yrjs' eav 8e to a\as pcopavdjjj ev tlvi dXtirBqa-erai ; 10. enrev 6e 
6 Kvpios TIB TlavXco Mr) (j)o^ov, dXXa XaXei, xai pfj aianrr^irris. 11. iav 
dyairare pe, Tas e'vToXds Tas epds Tr]pi]<TtTf. 12. a/i^v Xiya vphi oti, 
eltriv Tives t&v Side ovt(ov oiTtves ov prj yevcrcavTat QavaTov eats &v tdaa-iv 
TOV viov TOV dvdpmrrov 6p\6pevov ev Trj ^atrLXela avTov. 13. edv yap 
dyavTjoriTe tovs ayairavTas vpas, Tiva purBov exeTe; 14. xal eTvoirjaev 
SaSexa Lva iiaiv peT' ai/rov Kai iva dnoareXXri KrjpvaiTeai Kol exeiv e^oviriav 
eK^dXXeiv TO Saipovta. 15. pf/ ovv XeyereTi (jidyaipev ; ij Ti iriapev ; rj Tl 
Trepi^aXdipeSa ; 

1. If ye do good to them that do good to you what reward have ye? 
2. Do not bring Gentiles into the temple. .3. Let us not seek the 
things of this age, but the things of the age that is to come^. 4. If ye 
do these things ye shall be loved by my Father. 5. Do not continue 
to receive the enemies of the Gospel. 6. I will in no wise allow thee 

' vdrepov "whether." ^ Use pres. part. o( Ipxopai. 



102 FUETHER USES 

to eat bread in this place. 7. If we confess our sins he will have mercy 
upon us. 8. They went to the priest that they might ask him about 
the vision'. 9. And all the people were silent that they might hear the 
messengers of Caesar. 10. If we love him we shall keep his command- 
ments. 11. The slaves brought me bread and fish that I might taste 
it 2. 12. Sin no longer, lest a worse thing come upon thee. 13. If 
these men are wicked the Lord will destroy them and their city. 
14. I will in no wise manifest myself to this generation. 15. Do not 
carry wine to the slaves. 16. If the enemy draw near I will set the 
soldiers in order. 17. How shall we buy Isread that these may eat ? 
18. Let us love our parents that we may be loved by them. 



LESSON XXXII 
FURTHER USES OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD 

The Infinitive mood, as has already been pointed out, is really a 
verbal noun, and, as such, can be used as the subject or object of a 
verb. 

Its character as a noun can be emphasised by prefixing an article to 
it : it then practically becomes a declinable neuter noun. 

Its case is shown by the case of the article, for the infinitive itself 
cannot have inflections. 

The Infinitive preceded by an Article, or the Articular Infinitive, as 
it is sometimes called, may have a subject, object or other limiting 
words attached to it. These words generally come between the article 
and the infinitive and form with it a phrase equivalent to a noun. 

The Articular Infinitive is frequently used in connexion with a 
Preposition. Phrases of this kind are generally best translated by an 
Adverbial clause in English. 

Examples : els or ■n-pos followed by the Accusative of the Articular 
Infinitive expressing purpose. 

And they shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock and to scourge 
and to crucify. 

KoX TrapaSairovcrtv avTov Tois e$v€(rtv els to ep.7ral^ai Kal p.a(mySttTat Koi 
<TTavpS>ornt. Mt. xx. 19. 

I sent that I might know your faith. 

ejreiiyjfa fls to yvS>vai Trjv jrioTiv VfiSiv. 1 Thess. iii. 5. 
' Spa/ia -aros, t6. " Use genitive case. 



OF THE INFINITIVE 103 

But take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men in 
order to be seen of them. 

Trpoa-fXfTf Se tijj/ SiKauxrvvriv ifimv fir) Troielv ejnrpoa-dfv t&v avBpamMv 
npbs TO deadrjvm airois. Matt. vi. 1. 

ev followed by the Dative of the Articular Infinitive expressing the 
TIME DURING WHICH Something takes place. 

And as he sowed, some fell by the way side. 

KaL €V ra cnreipeLv avrbv o /iev en€<rev irapa ttjv 6b6v. 

Lk. viii. 5. 
And while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the 
wheat. 

ev oe Tco Kaoevdeiv tovs dvBpairovs ^Xdev aifTov 6 ey^Bpos Kal CTreaneipev 
fifaxm dva pearov roC a-irov. Mt. xiii. 25. 

7rp6 followed by the Genitive of the Articular Infinitive to be 
translated by before. 

For your Father knoweth the things of which ye have need before 
ye ask him. 

DtSev^ yap 6 Tlarrip vp^v Syv ^peiav €^€T€ npo tov vpds aiT^aat avrop-^ 

Mt. vi. 8. 
fierd followed by the Accusative of the Articular Infinitive to be 
translated by after. 

But after I am raised up, I will go before you into Galilee. 
dWa peTci TO eyepdqvat pe Trpod^ta vpds els tt/v TaKiXaiav. 

Mk xiv. 28. 
Sid followed by an Accusative of the Articular Infinitive to express 

CAUSE. 

And because it had no root it withered away. 

Koi Sea TO pri e)(€iv pl^av e^pdvSrj. Mk iv. 6. 

The Infinitive in Object clauses after verbs 
of saying or thinking 

We have already seen that object clauses after verbs of saying or 
thinking may be expressed by a clause introduced by Sti with a verb in 
the Indicative mood. They may also be expressed by putting the verb 
in the same tense of the Infinitive as that used by the original speaker 
or thinker when he uttered the words, or framed the thoughts, which 
are reported in these object clauses. The original speaker or thinker 
used a verb in the Indicative, Subjunctive or Imperative mood to express 
his words or thoughts : when these words or thoughts are turned into 
an object clause the mood is altered but not the tense. 
' See Exerciee 36. 



104 THE INFINITIVE IN OBJECT, 

The subject of the Infinitive is of course put into the Accusative 
case, unless it denotes the same person as the subject of the verb of 
saying or thinking. 

This construction is called the "Accusative and Infinitive" con- 
struction. 

We have a similar construction in English, but it is seldom used. 
We prefer to use the construction which corresponds with the on 
construction in Greek and to introduce object clauses after verbs of 
saying or thinking with the conjunction "that." 

Examples of the Accusative and Infinitive construction in English. 
"The priests pronounced the lepers to be clean.'' 
"We know them to be guilty." 
"I perceive them to be making a mistake." 

The Accusative and Infinitive construction does not occur frequently 
in the New Testament after verbs of saying or thinking. It is not there- 
fore thought necessary to tre^t the subject at length here. For further 
information the student is referred to the author's Syntax of New 
Testament Greek. 

The following are examples of this construction from the New 
Testament. 

Ye say that I cast out devils by Beelzebub. 
Xc'yere ev Bee^e^oiiX eK&dWetv fie ra Satfiovta. 

Lk. xi. 18. 
How do they say that Christ is the son of David? 
ttSs Xfyouo-iv tov Xpia-rbv elvai AavelS uidi/; Lk. XX. 41. 
The Sadducees who say that there is no resurrection. 
ol ^addovKoioi ol \iyovTes firj eivai dvacrracrtv. 

Mt. xxii. 23. 

The Infinitive in Consecutive clauses 
introduced by ware 

The Infinitive is often used in Oonaeeutive clauses introduced by 
Hare to express the result of the action of the main verb. 

Example : 

And behold there arose a great tempest in the sea so that the boat 
was covered by the waves. 

KOI l8ov (Tfia-fio! fif'yas eyeVfTO ev TJj doKda-a-n, SorerA irXoioi/ KaXvjrTe(r- 
dm iffi T&v KvfiaTav. Mt. viii. 24. 



CONSECUTIVE AND TEMPORAL CLAUSES 105 

The Infinitive in Temporal clauses introduced 
by irpiv or irpiv V, "Before." 

When the verb in the principal clause is affirmative the clause 
introduced by irpiv has the Accusative and Infinitive construction. 
Example : 

Before the cock crow thou shalt deny me thrice. 

irpXv oKcKTopa (l>covrj(rai rpXs airapvrja-T) p,e. Mt. xxvi. 34. 

Exercise 32 

Learn the parts of tx'^ (70), Ka\ea) (19), airo6vj)<TKa> (53), jSaiVco (48), 
TtUTTeva (14), ayairaa (15). 

Learn Vocabulary 26. 

1. TO ayairqv tov deov e^ oXrjs KapBias Kal to dyaTrqv Tov TrXrjiriov ois 
eavTov neptacrorepov irrri navTav t&v oKoKavrcopaTcav'- Koi 6vtnS)v. 
2. npotTeixpv 5e ol o^^Xot Tols Xeyofievots virb tov ^iXliTTrov iv Ta OKOveiv 
avToi/s Kol jSXcVetv Ta (TTjpeLa a f Trotet. 3. irpb yap tov eXdetv Tivas ottq 
^laKta^ov peTa twv i6vS)V (rvvr)aOtev 6 IlcVpoff. 4. Kal Sta t6 ir\r]dvv0^vai 
TTjv dvop.lav yl/vy7j(reTai^ j) dyairrj Tav iroWatv. o, peTa Se to (riyrja'ai 
avToiis aTTCKptSri 'laxcu/Sos. 6. TiVn \eyovcTiv oi avBpoTroi eivai tov uiov 
TOV avBpmnov; 7. ovK otfjeiKopfv vopi^eiv \pv(Ta rj dpyvpa r) Xi'doj to 
Oetov^ elvai, opocov. 8. Kal XiddtravTes tov HavXov ftrvpov e^(o ttjs TroXeoJS, 
vopi^ovTes avTov TfBvrjKevai^. 9. eav de iiTrtap^v 'E^ dvdpoiirav^ 6 \abs 
anas KaTaKidd(rei r/pas, maTevei yap 'ladvj)v wpo^rfTtv eivai. 10. 6 pkv 
ovv ^rfiTTOS dn€Kpi6ri TJjpeiaOai tov HaxiKov iv Kaitrapeiaj eavTov 8e peWeiv 
iv Td)(€i^ eKTropevea'dai. 11. Kal i6ap^T)6r)(Tav aTravTes, wiTTe o'v^r/Tflv 
avToiis XiyovTas Ti icni tovto ; 12. dpijv Xf'yo) (rot oti eV ravTr; Trj vvktI 
nplv oKeKTopa (pavfja^ai Tpls dnapvr)(rri pe. 1.3. koX yvaarov iyivfTO irdiri 
Tois KOTOtKovo-w 'lepovordKrjp, aa-Tf KXr/drjvai to ^'^piov eKcivo Ax^XSapd)^. 
14. Kvpie, Kord^ridi irplv diroBavelv to jraMov pov. 15. ^peXKev eavTOv 
dvaipeiv^ vopi(a>v eKTrf<l)fvyfvai tovs 8€(rpiovs. 

1. For to fear the Lord and to walk in his ways is good for the sons 
of men. 2. But while the elders were coming we remained in the 
fields. 3. The young men did not enter the temple because the priest 

' oKoKaiTbiiia, -otos, to' "a whole burnt offering." 

2 ^iryiJiTETai, fut. pass, from ipixi^ "shall grow cold." 

3 t6 Beiov "the divine Being." 

■• reSrriKfvai perf. inf. act. from BvTfUKw " I die." 

<• iv Tdx« "quickly." " avaLpeXv "to slay." 



106 THE VERBS IN fll 

was dead. 4. And after Paul had spoken Festus answered him, 

5. Before the king saw the city he sent three messengers to its rulers. 

6. But we aU feared, so that we hid among the trees. 7. All the 
people believe that Moses wrote these things. 8. Depart from the 
house before the publican comes. 9. But after the multitude gave 
heed to the apostles they did many signs among them. 10. We think 
that he benefited this people by teaching them to obey the king. 
11. And he healed the blind man so that all men wondered. 12. The 
young man died before the prophet came. 13. We believe that Peter 
is an apostle. 14. They stoned Paul because he preached the Gospel 
to them. 15. To love the Lord is better than gold or silver. 16. While 
he was coming down from the mountain he commanded his disciples 
to tell the vision to no man before they came to Jerusalem. 17. And 
now I have told you all these things before they come to pass. 18. All 
the Jews cried out that Paul ought not to live any longer •. 19. But I 
perceived that he was a wise and good man. 20. The peopfe gave heed 
to John for they believed that he was a prophet. 



LESSON XXXIII 

THE VERBS IN ;i«, K8a>^i 

Besides the verbs in at there are a few verbs of very frequent 
occurrence which are called verbs in fu from the ending of the 1st sing, 
of the Pres. Ind. Act. 

These verbs have endings differing from those of the verbs in a> in 
the Present and 2nd Aorist tenses. In the other tenses their endings 
are practically the same as those of the verbs in o>. 

It is especially important in the case of the verbs in /ii to remember 
the distinction laid down in Lesson XVII between the verbal stem from 
which most of the tenses of the verb are formed and the present stem 
from which the present tense is formed. 

The verbal stems of the three principal verbs in fu are as follows 
Present Meaning Stem 

SiSiofii I give fio 

riSriiu I place Se 

'ia-rrjju I cause to stand ora 



BiBto/jLi 



107 



It will be noticed that the present stem is a reduplicated and 
lengthened form of the verbal stem in all three cases. "o-Tij/ii stands 
for a-i<m]fii, the rough breathing taking the place of the o-. 

The Present and 2nd Aorist forms should be carefully learnt. 

The other tenses can readily be formed from the verbal stem. 



Prei 


sent Active of 8(S<o/« "I give" 




Pres. Ind. 


Imperf. 


Imperat. 


Subjunctive 


8i8i»/ii 


(8i8ovv 




8t85} 


biSas 


edlBovs 


8I80V 


8i8as 


BlbauTt 


f8l8ov 


SMto, 


SiSt^ 


diSoiiev 


e8i8ofifv 




8i8m/ifJ' 


SiSoTf 


e'Si'SoTf 


8i8oTC 


StSoJre 


StSoacrt 


e8i8ocrav or 


SiSoTatrav 


8i8S)(Ti 




€8l8ovV 


8i86vTaiv 




Optative 


Infinitive 


Part. 




(8i8olr)v 


8i86vat 


8180VS, biboviTa, 


8t86v 


StSoiris 




Gen. 8i86vTos etc. 




SiSoiri 








StSo'ifiev 




■ 




StSotTe 








BiSoUv) 










2iid Aorist Active 




Pres. Ind. Imperat 


Subjunctive 


Optative Infinitive Part. 


— 


8co 


{80LTJV 8ovvai 80VS 


— 6or 


8as 


8oiT]S 


8oviTa 


doTtt) 


8a, 8o>r] 


8oli]j 8oij 8(arj 


86v 


fSofiev 


8aifiev 


8oififv 




edore Sore 


8S>Te 


doiTC 




eSoa-av Soratrav 


8aKTi 


doiev) 




86vT03V 









Notes. The singular of the 2nd Aor. Ind. is not used, its place is 
taken by the 1st Aor. ?8<oKa, e8a>Kas, eSaKc. 

a is found in all the endings of the Subjunctive. 

The forms of the Optative are only given for the sake of complete- 
ness. They need not be learnt on the first reading. 

For the use of the Optative mood see Lesson XXXVI. 



108 



SiScofii 





Present Middle and Passive 




Free. Ind. 
SiSo/juu 
SiBotrai 
dlBprai 
BiBoiicBa 

SiSovTai 


Opt. 


Imperf. 

ehlborro 
iBibniitBa 
ibiboa-Oe 
ib'ibovTo 


Infin. 


Imperat. 

bibocro 
biboa-dio 

biboa-Be 

btboa-Bao 

biboa-Otav 


rav 

Part. 


Subj. 
bibaiiai 

bibarai 
bibafieOa 
bibaaBt 
bibwvTm 




Sifioio 
BlBoTto 


/" 


biboaOaL 


bibo^evos 

bibofiivj] 

bibo/ievov 





bibotfieda 

biboiaet 

biboivTo) 

Notice the similarity of these endings to those of the Perfect Passive. 



2nd Aorist Middle > 



Indie. 

ibofirjv 

ebov 

eboTo 

ebofifSa 

ebotrBf 

ebovTO 



Imperat. 

bov 
botrBa 

boa-Bf 

boaBcotrav 

boadav 



Subj. 
bcofiai 
bm • 
barcu 
batfisBa 
baa-Be 
bavrm 



Opt. 
(boifirii/ 
bolo 

boiTO 

boiiiiBa 

boia-Be 

boivTo) 



In&ii. 
botrBai 



Part. 
bo/ifvos, % ov 



Notice the prevalence of the vowels a and o throughout. 
The other tenses of bibafu are as follows : they are formed regularly 
from the stem do with the following exceptions : 

(1) The consonant inserted before the endings of the 1st Aor. 
Act. is K and not a. 

(2) The short vowel of the stem is not lengthened before the 
endings of the 1st Aor. Pass., the Future Pass, or the Perf. Pass. 

Future Act. baa-io 

1st Aor. Act. ebtoKo 

Perf. Act. bebcoKa 

Fut. Mid. Smo-o/iot 

Fut. Pass. boBrjiToiuu 

1st Aor. Pass. iboBrjv 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. b4bojj.ai 

^ The 2nd Aor. Mid. need not be learned at first. 



EXERCISES 109 



Exercise 33 

Learn the parts of SiSafu (62), TriVra (26). 

Learn Vocabulary 27. 

1. o oe Ir/crovs e8i8ov rbv aprov rots liadrjTois iva StSSxriv airov role 
ox^ots. 2. 6 yap 6fbs blba<Ti to nvfvpa to dywv rols alTovaiv avTov. 
3. finov ifuv iv iroia e^oviria ravTa woifts, ^ ri's firTiv 6 Sois aroi Trjv 
e^ova-iav TavTr)v. 4. avoXisTe kcu aTrokvOrjcrea-Bf, Si'SoTe kw. dodri(rerai 
Vjuv. 5. KOI but Ti OVK ebwKas fiov to apyvpiov in\ Tpdwe^av^ ; 6. iiiuv 
heboTai yv&vai to jivirrripia Trjs ^atTiXelas. 7. airoSos fioi tl tl 6<j)e!Xeis. 

8. 6 Sc OVK ij6f\fv, aWa aneKBaiv e^akcv avTov els (fivKoK^v cas anoSa to 
o^eCKofifvov. 9. t^fo-Tiv fjfias Kaia-api :j>6pov^ Sovvat; Sa/iev fj pj] bmp^v; 

10. ebodrj pot Tratra i^ovtria iv ovpavco Koi eVi y^s, 11. 6 naTrfp dyand 
t6v uioK, KOI jrdvTa SeSaxev iv ttj x^^p'^ ai/Tov. 12. paKaptov icrri pSXKov 
Sovvai Tj \ap^dvfiv. 13. Tis fj o-ocfiia ij 8o6ei(Ta TOVTif ; 14. eiTre poi el 
ToaovTOv TO ;^a)^toi/ aTridoode ; 15. TavTa irdvTa troi ttoarat iav Trta-iav 
Trpoo^KwrjaTis poi. 16. naX orav ayacriv vpds napaSiSovTa, pfj Trpopeptpvare 
TL \akr]aT]T€j aXX o iav doOjj vpiv iv iKeivrj ttj cSpa tovto XaXetre. 17. Koi 
vvv (ipriKa iip'iv irpXv yevicrdai, Iva orav yfvrjTai TTia-TcitrriTe. 

1. I give you power over unclean spirits to cast them out. 2. This 
dog was given to me by my father. 3. We wish to give the gold to the 
high-priests. 4. Do not give good things to the wicked. 5. The field 
was being sold to the soldiers by the publicans. 6. They went about 
giving garments to the lepers. 7. I will in no wise give that which is 
thine to the Lord. 8. Thou gavest me water when I was thirsty 3. 

9. Let us keep the commands which have been given to us. 10. He 
who gives bread to the hungry shall in no wise lose his reward. 

11. We were giving the money to the servants that they might give it 
to the widows. 12. The king has given us this city that we may live 
in it, let us not betray it to his enemies. 13. Sell all that thou hast 
and give to the poor. 14. If ye ask bread will your father give you 
a stone? 15. AVhatever we ask will be given to us. 16. Give and it 
shall be given to you. 17. This money has been given to thee that thou 
may est buy the field. 18. Give us, Lord, thy grace that we may 
worship thee in spirit and in truth. 19. What is the wisdom that is 
given to this man ? 

1 ^iri TpctTTef oc = " to the bank." ^ <j>6pos -ov, 6, "tribute." 



110 



THE VEKBS IN jJLl 



THE 



LESSON XXXIV 

VERBS IN /it, TlBriiu "I place" 







Present Active 






Free. Ind. 


Imperf. 


Imperat. 


Subjunctive 


tIBtjiu 




MBtiv 






Tt6S) 


tIOtis 




eTtdfis 


rtdet 




TldflS 


rtBrja-i 




irlBei 


TideTm 




rc0n 


ridffiev 


irWeiiev 






nSaiifv 


riBfTe 




MBcTf 


TiBere 




TiBfiTe 


TiBiaari, 


eTidetrav or 


Tidiraaav 


ndann 






eriBovv 


Tl64vTU>V 








Optative Inf. 


Participle 






(ridflrp/ Ttddvat 


Tlfffis 






TiBeirfs 




TiBeiaa 






TiBeirj 




Tidev 






TtBelfieu 










TideiTt 












TiBeUv 


■) 












2nd Aorist Active 






Indie. 


Imperat. 


Subj. 


Opt. 


Infin. Part. 


— 




di> 


{6eii)v 


delvat Beis 


— 


5« 


dss 


Ofitjs 




Be'ura 


— 


6cT(0 


Bfl 


0eiri 




Biv 


cdc/xc» 




Odfifv 


delfifv 






ctfere 


Oire 


StJTt 


6ftTC 






Weaav 


deTanTav 
OevTiav 


6S}<n 


6(uv) 








Present Middle and Passive 




Pres. Ind, 




Imperf. 


Imperat. 




Subj. 


Tidcfiai 




eTiOe^rjv 






nBafiai 


TiBeaai 


( 


iriOea-o 


TI.6f(T0 




nBf, 


Tiderai 




ETlOfTO 


Ti6ta6a> 




TlBrjTW. 


Ti6fii(da 




fTiBififBa 






nBaiieda 


Ti6f<T6f 




tTiSfo-de 


ridetrBe 




TiBija-Bf 


TlBeVTOl 




iriBevTo 


TidfaSoKTav 


TiBavTai 








Ti$e(rdcov 








Opt. 


Infin. 




Part. 






(nfleijttiji 


' ridco-dai 


Tidifievos 






TiBeto 






Tidftievrj 






TtSeiTO 






Ti6fnevov 






Ti6eifK6t 


a 










Tt6fl(r9e 












TiBfivTo] 


1 









TL0r]fJ,l 
2nd Aorist Middle 



111 



Indio. 


Ituperat. 


Subj. 


Opt. 


Infin. 


Part. 


fdefirjv 




d&fiai 


{6filir)v 


BeaBm 


BffievoSj rjj ov 


eOov 


Gov 


6ii 


Be'io 






eBfTO 


eifrBa 


drJTm 


BetTO 






idiiifOa 




6uijic6a 


BeifieBa 






edea-Of 


dia-Se 


drja-Oe 


Be'iirBe 






fdevi'o 


Oe(rd(0(Tav 


SatVTai 


BflvTo) 







Observe the general similarity between the endings of rlBrmi and 
those of SiSwfit with the exception that e and not o is the characteristic 
vowel. 

The other tenses of nBrjfii are as follows : they have the same 
peculiarities as the corresponding tenses of SlSafu. Stem Be. 

Notice that the vowel in the Perfect is ei and not r). 



Future Act. 


Brja-Q) 


1st Aor. Act. 


iBrjKa 


Perf. Act. 


TeBeiKa 


Fut. Mid. 


Brjo-oiiai 


Fut. Pass. 


TcBrjcrofiai 


1st Aor. Pass. 


fTfBrjv 


Perf. Mid. or Pass. 


TfBeifiai 



Note that in the Fut. and 1 Aor. Pass, the B of the stem is changed 
to T to prevent two B's coming together. 

Exercise 34 

Learn the parts of TiBrifu (64), aipco (36), (}>epa> (74). 

Learn Vocabulary 28. 

1. ov KaioviTLV \v)(vov Koi TiBfaa-iv avrbv inri) tqv fi68iov ^ aXX* iiri ttjv 
\vxvlav^. 2. KOI Xa^av to amfia 6 'Ioht^i^ eBrjKev avTO c'v ra xaivw airov 
fivrifieiat. 3. firjTi epxfrai 6 Aup^vor iva ijro tov fioSiov TtBtj; 4. Ka\ ottou 
&v clcfTTOpeveTO iv tols dyopals iriBearav roits da-Beuovvras. 5. kol ivay- 
KoKicrafievos^ ra TraiSia KaTfvXoyei. riBels ras xf'por f "■' avrd. 6. o 7roi/ii]v 
6 KoKos TTJV ^rvx^jv avrov TiBrjcTLV vnep rav Trpo^drtav, 7. ripav tov Kvptov 
eK TOV p,VTip,eiov, Koi ovK o'lj&ap,ev* nov ilBrfKav avrov. 8. ov^ vfiSiv fWl 
yvSjvai ;^/>oi'ous rj Kmpovs oiis 6 naTrfp eBero cV ttj Ibia e^ovala. 9. Koi 
iKkaiTiv Tovs lipTovs Kw. iSlSov Tois puBijTois iva TrapaTiBaa-iv aiirois. 



1 ;i6Sios -ov, 6, " a measure.'' 

" ^cay/coXifw "I take in my arms.'' 



2 Xvxvla -as, ^, "a lamp-stand." 
* otSaiitv "we know." 



112 THE VERBS IN fil 

10. Koi fit fjv &v7r6Kiv eliT4pxi<r6e koX 84x''>vTai vfias, itrOUreTa irapariSeneva 
Vjiiv. 11. Km l&oij avbpes ^ipovres eVi KXtVijs avdpairov oy 7]v irapaXeXv- 
fievoS] Km e^rjTOVv avTOV eitreveyKetv xat tfeivai avTou evtaTTtpv avTov. 
12. KOI avTos aTreawdirdri dir' avrSiv axTft \l6ov ^oKr]v ', Koi 6e\s ra yovara 
npooTiixero. 13. Kvpie Sia n oi Svvafiai itol aKokovBtiv &pTi^; Tr)V i\rv\r]v 
fiov iwep (rov 6r)iTa>. 14. ecfiepov ras Ti/ias rav ^apiav xai eTidovv irapa 
Toils TToSas tS)v aTrotrToKav. 15. KaSov^ ix Se^Uov fiov eas av 6S> toxis 
e\6ptyvs (Tov viroirohiov * t5)v iroSav (rov, 

1. We set beside them wine and water in cups. 2. We wished to 
place the sick in the market-places. 3. And falling upon his knees he 
prayed to the God of heaven. 4. How shall we place the paralytic 
before his feet ? 5. They tried to place the books in the synagogue. 
6. We will place the lamp under the measure. 7. Thou didst place 
me in a good land. 8. Behold all these laid down their lives for the 
brethren. 9. Do not place this writing upon the cross. 10. This is 
the throne that was placed in the temple. 11. Place the body of the 
prophet in the tomb of his fathers. 12. The sword is placed in the 
hand of the king. 13. The apostles placed their hands upon us and 
blessed us. 14. I will come down that I may place my hands upon her, 
and she shall live. 15. The lamps shall be placed in the house of the 
elder. 16. The nets were placed by the side of the ship. 17. The 
sick man was brought in on a bed and placed before him. 18. I am 
he that placed my hands upon your head when you were a boy. 
19. Ye shall in no wise eat that which is set before you. 20. The 
bread was broken and set before them. 



LESSON XXXV 

THE VERBS IN /it, larrjp.t 

The following points should be specially noticed in connexion with 
this verb. 

(1) This is one of the few verbs which has both a 1st and a 2nd 
Aorist in use. These tenses always difiier in meaning in the case of this 
verb. 

' ibael \i0ov po\iiP "about a stone's oast." 

' dpTi "now, at this moment." ^ ^tiffou "sit down." 

* inroirbSiov -ov, t6, "a footstool." 



larrifii 



U3 



The Present, Imperfect, Future and 1st Aorist tenses of the 
active voice of ta-n)ij,i are transitive and mean " I cause to stand " or 
" I place " etc. 

The Perfect and Pluperfect are intransitive and are used in the 
sense of the Present and Imperfect with the meaning of " I stand " etc. 
The 2nd Aorist is also intransitive and means " I stood." 

The Passive is used in the sense of " I am caused to stand," " I 
am placed," hence simply " I stand." 

Practically the only passive tense used in the N.T. is the 1st Aorist. 

(2) In the tenses in which there is reduplication (the Present, and 
the Perfect) the first er is omitted and a rough breathing put in its 
place : Present torij/ii for ctioti/^i, Perfect corijita for o-t'ori/Ka. 

The breathings should be watched with special care in the case of 
this verb. There is a rough breathing on all the moods of the Present 
and Perfect tenses, and a smooth breathing on the augmented tenses 
of the 1st and 2nd Aorist. 

The Present Middle and Passive is only given for completeness, and 
need not be learnt at first. 

Notice that in the 1st Aor. Act. the usual <r, and not k, is found. 





Present Active 






Pres. Ind. 


Imperfect 


Imperat. 




Subjunct. 


urrrjfii 


ItTTJJI' 






ia-TO) 


la-nis 


lOD/S 


fori; 




'urrjjs 


lOTrja-i 




'uTTarei 




itrrn 


itTTafxev 


toTOfiei' 






itrTaiiev 


tarare 


(orarf 


urraTe 




urTTJTe 


UrraiTt 


"uTTOxrav 


io-rarojo-oi' 


laraa-i 






'uTTavToiv 








Opt, 


IniSnitive 


Participl 


e 




{iarair^v 


itrrdvai 


icTTiis 






ItjTairjs 




'urraa-a 






iaraitj 




lardv 






'uITCU.jl.fV 










'urrmTt 










ioraifv) 









114 



tarrifu 







Second Aorist Active 




Pres. Ind. 


Imperat. 


Subjunctive 


Optative Infinitive Part. 




m-fiBi. 




0-7-55 


{frratTjv or^vat trrds 
arairjs trraa-a 


forq 






<"■?/ 


trrair) 


ardv 


earrffiev 






(TTajiev 


araiixev 




taTTjTe 






UTfJTC 


(TTaiTe 




eorrjo-av^ 


(rniTaxTav 
ardvTOjv 




a-Toxn 


OToiev) 






Present Middle and Passive 




Pres. Ind. 


Imperf 

'uTTdfUfV 




Imperat. 


Subj. 
iaraiixat 


laraa-ai 


KTTOXTO 




ICTTOO-O 


iirr§ 


LoraTcu 
ia-TdfieSa 
la-raa-Be 
urravTat. 


taTOTO 

loTdjxcB 

lOTavTO 


a 


lardaBcD 

taraa-Be 

iirrdaOaa-av 

t<TTd(rda>v 


lo-T^rat 

laraiifBa 

io-rfja-Be 




Opt. 




Infin. 
i<TTa<r6 


Part, 
at l(rTdfi€vos 






taraio 

ItTTatTO 

'uTToliieda 
iardlo-df 






iarafievrj 
Itrrdfievov) 




iaraivTo) 











The other tenses of larrjiu are as follows. 

Future Active, or^o-o) I shall cause to stand. 

1st Aorist Act. etrTija-a I caused to stand. 

Perfect Act. eo-TijKa I stand. 2nd Perf. Part, iaras, ioTOMra, itrroi 

Pluperfect Act. coT^xeti' often vrritten elirniKdv I was standing. 

Future Middle. crTrja-ofim I shall stand. 

Future Passive. (rTa6fi<ronai I shall stand. 

1st Aor. Pass, fo-raflijv I stood. 

1 Note that the 3rd pi. of the 1st and 2nd Aorists of iaTVfu are the same 
in form. Their meaning must be inferred from the context. Examples are 
given in the last three sentences of exercise B. The verb in sentence 12 is 
2nd Aor. and that in sentence 13 1st Aor. 



EXERCISES 115 

Exercise 35 

Learn the parts of la-nnu (63), 7rd<rx<o (73), dyyeXXm (33), (jyaiva (38), 
^alva (48). 

Learn Vocabulary 29. 

A 

1. TOTC TtapaKaii^avei aiirov 6 SidfioKos eis t^k &yiau iroKiv nal e(TTr)artv 
aiiTov effi to irrepvyiov^ tov lepov, 2. ravra Se avrStv \a\ovvTiov avTOS 
eoTT] ev fieaa aiirav. 3. e^Xe^av triiv avTots earaTa tov avdpairov tov 
TedepaTrevfjievov. 4. el de 6 ^aravas tov ^aravdv eK^dWet, e<^' eavTov 
€fiepl(rdi]' TTots ovv OTaOrjcreTat fi ^atriKeia aiiTov; 5. to vvv TrapayyeXXei 6 
6fos TOif dv6panois wdvTas TravTaxov iieTavoelv, fca6' on earrjirev ^fiipav 
iv § /ifXXfi Kplvfiv Tqv oiKovp.ivriv ev SiKmoo'VVti. 6. 6 iapuraios trraBeXs 
TaiiTa irpos eavTov TrpoanjvxeTO. 7. 6 8e TeXdivrjs paKpodev^ earats ovk 
^9e\ev ovde Toiis d(l>dd\p^vs eirdpai els Tov ovpavov. 8. 6 de ^Irjirovs ' 
iardOri ep.irpo(rdev tov f^yep^ovos. 9. Se\s be ra yovOTa expa^ev ^tavrj 
peydkji Kvpie p-q arTTjo-rjs avTols Tavrqv tt/v apapriav. 10. ^era Tavra 
dvearri '\ovbas 6 roXtXaiOf ev rals f/pepais Trjs OTToypa^^s^ Koi dTreoTTio'e 
\aov OTrltrat avTov. 11. el Mcovtreas Koi t5>v TrpofprjTav oiiK dKOVOvaiv, ovd^ 
edv TLS eK veKp&v dvatTTjj TreitrBr^irovTai, 12. eitrev he ra dvhpi r<a ^pdv 
e^ovTi Trfv x^lpa'^'E.yetpe kw. aTrf^i els to peaov • koi dvaa-Tas eorij, 

B 

1. avSpairefTis pe KareaTTjirev KpiTTiv rj pepKTTfjv* e<j)' ipds; 2. ovSelr 
bvvaTat eXdelv irpos pe edv prf 6 TraTrjp 6 irepylras pe eXxucri; avTov, kol 
dva(rTrjiT<o airov iv tjJ ear^dTji fjpepa. 3. rj prjTrip Kol oi dSeX<j)ol avTOv 
eioT^Keto'av e^at ^rjTovvTes avTa XdKrjaat. 4. ol viroKptToi (^tXoOcrtv ev Tois 
ovvayayoLS earatTes TrpotrevxecrOm, oir<os (fyavStatv tois dv6panois. 5. bovs 
be avTTJ xV-po. dvearrjo'ev aur^i/. 6. to be Trvevpa prjToos^ Xeyei on ev 
v(TTepois KOtpois aTroaTTjo'ovTai Tives Trjs TrlaTetas* 7. ttws Spoiao'topev Trjv 
^amXeiav tov 6eov, ^ ev rlvi avTrp> jrapaPoXrj BSipev ; 8. d be Irjirovs 
eirCXa^opevos waiblov eoTfjirev avTo nap' eavTa. 9. jropeveade koi (rradevTes 
XaXe'iTe ev tSi Upa t^ Xam irdvTa Ta pr/poTa T^r fw^r TavTr/s. 10. kol 
KOTo^aivovTiOV avTav eK tov opovs everelXaTO^ avToZs 6 Irja-ovs Xeyav 

'■ TTTepiyiov -ov, t6, "pinnacle." ' paKpbBev "afar off." 

s iwoypa^ -^s, ■!), "enrolment." 

* pspuTTys -ov, 6, "a divider." ' pj/rus "expressly." 

* ivereOMTo, 3rd sing. Ist Aor. Mid. from ivT^XKu. 

8—2 



116 OTHER VERBS IN /it 

MijSei/i etnrjTe to opafia etos o5 6 vios tov dvBpairov eK vcKpatv avacrTJj, 
11. OLS KOI 7rape(mj(T€v iavTov ^avra fiera to iraQeiv avrov ev ttoAAois 
TfKpjqp'iois. 12. Koi ir poaeKdav fj-^aro Trjs (Topov^, ol 8« ^a^rra^ovTes 
eonjcrax. 13. (cm ivrtjaav paprvpas ^fvSfls Xiyovras 'O avOptonos ovtos 
oi Traverai \dkS>v prjpara Kara tov tSttov tov &yiov. 14. ayayovres 8e 
avTovs earrja'av ev rw avueSplco, 

1. I will cause thee to stand before Caesar for my name's sake 2. 
2. The righteous shall stand in the kingdom of their Father. 3. Paul 
therefore stood before Festus. 4. The priests caused the publican to 
stand in the midst of the marketplace. 5. But Peter stood up and 
preached the word to the multitude. 6. He is not here, for he has 
risen 3 from the dead. 7. Who appointed thee to be the ruler of this 
people ? 8. Then we arose and departed from the city. 9. You made 
the king to stand in the Holy Place. 10. In the last days many 
departed from the faith. 11. We stood without*, wishing to see the 
prophet. 12. Stand on thy feet and take up thy bed. 13. We hope 
to stand before the Lord in that day. 14. Then the spirit of the Lord 
lifted me up and caused me to stand on the waters. 15. After these 
things many robbers arose and led away much people after them. 

16. If any man believes in me I will raise him up at the last day. 

17. We commanded the soldiers to stand apart from the multitude. 

18. How shall we stand in the day of his wrath* ? 19. And standing 
up he cried with a loud voice, " Stand apart from these men, and make 
them to stand beside the king." 20. Those that heard these things 
stood still. 



LESSON XXXVI 

OTHER VERBS IN ,xt, o.'8a 

The verb ti//« occurs in the New Testament only in compounds, the 
most common of which are 

d<j)iripj, "I send away, I let go, I forgive." 

fnivitfp,t "I understand." 
The verbal stem of irjpi. is L The rough breathing passes to the 

1 tropSs -ov, ii, "a bier." 

2 "for the sake of" (vexa followed by a Genitive. 
8 "has risen" 2 Aor. iylirTriiu. 

* " without "?f(.i. » " wrath "(ipy^.^s,^. 



alBa 



117 



reduplicating syllable i in the Present and Imperfect, and the stem 
vowel is lengthened before the ending m as in rldrjint. 

All parts of the verb have therefore a rough breathing. 

The forms of dipirjfu given below are those which occur most 
frequently in the New Testament. Some of them such as the 2nd sing, 
and the 1st and 3rd pi. of the Pres. Ind. are formed as if from dcjyla or 
d(^ca) : a tendency on the part of the verbs in in to assimilate their 
endings to those of the verbs in m is very marked in the New 
Testament. 

Note that in the Imperfect the preposition and not the stem receives 
the augment. 



Prea. Ind. Act. 
{a(j)Lr)fii,) 
d0«r 

d<j)UT€ 

d<l>tov<ri 



3rd sing. Imperf. Ind. Act. ^(jiie 

Pres. Inf. Act. a(j)ievai 

3rd pi. Pres. Ind. Pa&s. . d(j)ifvTai or 

d^eavrat 
2nd Aor. Imperat. Act. 2nd sing, acjjes 
2nd pi. a(j)fr€ 
2nd Aor. Sub. Act. d(j)S> etc. 
2nd Aor. Part, dc^clr d(j>ei<ra d^iv 

Future Active. d<j)ri<ra 
Future Passive, dtjiedria-oiiai 
1st Aor. Act. a^Ka 
1st Aor. Pass, dtfiidrjv 

The forms of olba " I know" which are found in the New Testament 
are as follows : 

oiSo is a Perfect whose Present «So) is not in use. 
Perf. Ind. Pluperf. Imperat. Subj. Inf. Part. 



olba 

olbas 

olSe 

otBa/iev 

oiSarc, UTTe 

otSaa-i, "(ra(ri 



jjdeifiev 
vSfurau 



lore 



eiotim 
ei'Sof 






bivafjuu "I am able" and iniirraiiai "I know" are conjugated like the 
Present Passive of torij/ij. 



118 



OTHER VERBS IN /it 



Imperfect 

riBvvdiiriv 

rfdwatro 

ijbvvaTo 

rj^vdfieda 

TiBvuacrBe 



Infinitive 
8ivaa'0ai 



Participle 
Svvdfuvos, t}, ov 



Present 

hvvafnu 

hvvairai, hivrj 

Bvvarai 

Swd/teda 

BvvaaSe 

Bwavrai rjdvvavro 

Notice that the Imperfect has a double augment. The Aorist 
r)Bvvr)driv also generally has a double augment. 

There is also another class of verbs in ju which inserts w (in stems 
ending in a vowel vw) between the verbal stem and the endings of the 
Present tense. 

Stem Pres. Ind. Act. 

BelKvvfu 
oXXv/xe (SXvu/it) 



oeiK 

ax 



Qavwiu 



These verbs tend generally in the N.T. to assimilate themselves to 
verbs in a. Such fu forms as do occur are similar to those of TiB^fu, 
allowing for the stem vowel v instead of e. 



Exercise 36 

Learn the parts of d^lT)'fu, (49), Svvafuu (10), Sfixwui (60), ypd<pm (7). 
Learn Vocabulary 30. 

I. (cai vvv Xcyo) Vjuv diroaTrjTe anit t5>v dvOpairtev tovtcov rol a<f>(Te 
aiiTovs. 2. 6 8e lijirovs eiirsv avrw *A<^6S apri^ gvt(o yap npeirov €<rTiv 
fiiiiv nXrjp&frai natrav BiKouxrvvijv. Tore d<j>iria'tv avrov, 3. rdre trvvriKav 
ol fiadrjral Srt wepX 'Iwdvov rov ^aTrriarov eiirev aiiTois. 4. tls dvvarai 
a^iEvai dpapTias el fifj els, 6 6e6s; 5. oi 8e ev6ea>s d(j>evTes rd BUrva 
Tj Ko\ov6i]<Tav aira. 6. xai a(jies ^fuv ra 6<pti\^fiaTa fifiSiv, i>s Kai ij/icis 
dfjyrjKafiev Tois ofjteiKeTms fjjiaiv. 7. edv yap d<fi^Te toIs dvOpmnois rd 
napaiTT&fuiTa avrStv, d<^r)(Tei. xai Vjiiv 6 narifp hjxSiv 6 ovpdvios. 8. olBd (re 
Tis el, 6 dyios tov 6eov. 9. rdre BeUvvtriv aiirm 6 dta/3oXoc 7rd(ras rar 
^asrCKelas tov Kdtrfiov. 10. 7r\avdcrde p,r) elBores rds ypatjids it^lSe txjv 
Biva/iiv TOV 6eov. 11. e<eivois Be rois %^a> iv vapafioXais ra irdvTa yiyverai, 
iva OKOvovTes aKovao-iv nal prj avviaxriv. 12. ddptrei t4kvov, u<jiievTai 
aroi ai dp.apTlm. 13. t'i on i^rjTe'iTe jxe; ovk ^Bevre on ev toXs tov irarpos 
fiov Bel elvai p.e; 14. jjBei Be xai 'lovBas 6 wapaBiBovs mirhv t6v tottov. 



THE OPTATIVE MOOD 119 

16. ndrep, evxapuTTa o-oi OTi riKov(ras fiav, iyi> 8e ^Siiv on navTore fuw 
aKOvets. 16, ravraeypa^avfilv ivae'iBjjTe OTL ^mjv e^ere alaviov, 17. 6e\<a 
8e vfias etBevai on iravros dvbpos rj Ke<j>cL\rj 6 Xpiaros etrn. 18. Km oi/K 
^(juev ra Scu/iovia XaXciv on jjSeurav airov. 

1. Master, we know that thou art true. 2. God will forgive all 
our sins if we believe on' his name. 3. Then the priests understood 
that he had spoken this parable against them. 4. But since they did 
not know this, they arose and went to Jerusalem. 5. Did ye under- 
stand all these things ? 6. I forgive thee all that debt. 7. I write 
this to you that ye may know that ye are saved. 8. Let these men 
alone that they may worship the God of their fathers. 9. How shall 
I forgive thee for this ? 10. He suffered not the men who had been 
healed to follow him. 11. Know well that the Lord will not allow 
thee to err. 12. I am not able to understand this unless^ thou teach 
me. 13. Who is able to know all his faults ? 14. They knew that 
their soldiers were of good courage. 15. Know that all your faults 
shall be forgiven. 

LESSON XXXVII 

THE OPTATIVE MOOD. PERIPHRASTIC TENSES 

The Optative Mood 

The Optative Mood is used very rarely in the New Testament. 

Its forms are given in the table of verbs on pages 143—148. 

It generally expresses a wish : 

Example : 
boy, mayest thou become more fortunate than thy father. 
S nal, yivoto Trarpof eiTv\c(rTfpos. 

It is also used in dependent questions in the writings of St Luke 
sometimes with the particle av. 

Examples : 

And they began to discuss among themselves which it should be of 
them that should do this. 

KQi avTo\ rjp$avT0 (rufi^reiv Trpbs iavroiis to tIs Spa elr) e| airav 6 tovto 
p4\\<ov irpdiTiTeLU. Lk. xxii. 23. 

1 '!on" eis. ' "unless" ei /iV- 



120 PERIPHRASTIC TENSES 

And while Peter was doubting within himself what the vision should 
be which he had seen, behold the men that had been sent by Cornelius... 
stood before the door. 

ojs Se iv eavra bajTTopei 6 Tlerpos ri &v etr) to Spafia b etdev, l8oi oi 
avdpes oi aTretrraX/ieyot vtto tov Kopvrf\iov , , .eireo'TTja'av eVl tov 7rv\S>va. 

Acts X. 17. 

See the author's Syntax of N.T. Greek, paragraphs 131, 160, 161. 

Periphrastic Tenses 

In New Testament Greek tenses are sometimes formed, as in English, 
of a part of the verb "to be" and a participle. 

They are called " Periphrastic Tenses " because they are expressed 
in a roundabout way iwepi.(j>pa^eiv). 

The commonest Periphrastic Tenses are : 

The Periphrastic Imperfect formed of the Imperfect of elvw, and the 
Present participle : 

And Jesus was going before them. 

Km rjv Ttpoayav avTovs 6 'l7)(roSs. Mk X. 32. 

The Periphrastic Perfect formed of the Present of elvm and the 
Perfect participle : 

The people will stone us, for they are persuaded that John is a 
prophet. 

o \abs KOToKidatTei rjfids, neTreitrpJvos yap iarriv 'l<oavrpf TrpoKJirjTTjv 
fluai. Lk. XX. 6. 

The Periphrastic Pluperfect formed of the Imperfect of tivai and 
the Perfect participle : 

And John was clothed with camel's hair. 
Koi jjv 6 'ladpTis evSeSviuvos rpi^as Ka/t^\ov. Mk i. 6. 
The Periphrastic Future formed of the Future of elvai and the 
Present participle. This form of the tense has the force of a Future 
continuous, with the sense of continuity emphasised. 
From henceforth thou shalt catch men. 
dwo TOV viv avBpanovs taji ^coypiov. Lk. v. 10. 

Exercise 37 

Learn Vocabulary 31. 

1. Ihov i] bovKi] Kvpiov yivoiTo fioi kotA to prjiid <tov. 2. Kni irdvTes 
8te\oyi^ovTO ev Tois KapBlais airav wfpi tov 'icadvov, fii) noTe aiiTos fin 6 



EXERCISES 121 

XptOTOf. 3. ro apyvpiov irov triv <roi eit) els ctTrayKeiav. 4. aKoitras Sf 
0)(Xov biairopevofiivov^ iwvvOdveTO rt av eirj tovto. 5. 6 de Beos Ttjs 
virofiovrjs 8^ ^ viiiv to airo (jjpovfiv iv oKKrjKois. 6. Kai ndv to wXrjBos ^v 
TOv Xaoi) TT potrev^Ofifvov e^a> rfj &pa rod Bviud/jiaTos^. 7. Koi ^v oXj; f) 
iroXii enia-vvrjyiievri irpos Trjv Ovpav. 8. 'ifpovcrdKrip. la-rai irarovp.ivri ino 
rSiV idvSiV. 9. eirrjpaiTav 5e avrbv oi p-adr^rai avTov tls avrrj e'lrj rj irapa- 
^o\r). 10. ov yap eanv iv yaivi(f* ireirpayjievov tovto. 11. koi rjirav ol 
fioBTjTal Icadvov vrjartvovTss. 12. eiTrev be 6 XiavKos 'EcrTMff eTri tov 
^rjiuiTos^ KaiVapds el/u oS pe Set Kpivetrdai. 13. ^v yap SMctkiov airovs 
as e^ovaiau e^^av koi ovx i>s oi ypappareXs avTav. 14. koi irpoa^KoKea-d- 
pevos eva tS>v nai&av invvBdveTO Ti &v eo) TavTa. 

1. Then the blind man asked what this might be. 2. The disciples 
of Jesus were eating and drinking. 3. This thing has been done 
before many witnesses. 4. May it happen to us according to thy will. 
5. Thou shalt be walking the way of righteousness. 6. The disciples 
disputed who should be the greatest. 7. Mayest thou become more 
blessed than thy father. 8. May all the workers of iniquity perish. 
9. Then all the multitude was gathered together to the sea. 10. We 
desire to know what this saying may be. 11. May I become more like 
to thee, Lord. 

^ SiaTopeuo/i^ov "passing by." ^ Sifri from SlSuiu. 

' Svpla/ia, -aTos, t6, "incense." * ytavla -at, ^, "a, corner." 

' §rjiia -oTos, t6, "a judgement seat." 



122 



VOCABULARIES 





Vocabulary 1 


a/couo) 


(akouo) 


I hear, (acoustics.). 


^d7rodvrj(ricta 


(apothnesko) 


I die. 


*a7ro<rTeWa> 


(apostello) 


I send, (apostle.) 


/SaXXo) 


(ballo) 


I throw, I cast. 


/SXeTTO) 


(blepo) 


I look at, I see. 


ypatfiio 


(grapho) 


I write, (graphic, telegraph.) 


iyeipa 


(Sgeiro) 


I rouse, I raise. 


da-eia 


(Ssthio) 


I eat. 


evpi<rK(a 


(heurisko) 


I find. 


?X0> 


(gcho) 


I have. 


KpiVO) 


(knno) 


I judge, (critic.) 


'Kap.fiavat 


(lambano) 


I take, I receive. 


Xe'yo. 


(ISgo) 


I say. (Latin "legoj" and words de- 
rived from it like " lecture.") 


jiiva 


(mSno) 


I remain, I abide, I continue. 


irtarevo) 


(pisteuo) 


I believe. 


<Ta>C<o 


(sOzo) 


I save. 




Vocabulary 2 


alrfa 


(aiteo) 


I ask. 


frjre'o) 


(zeteo) 


I seek, I seek for. 


Bfcapeo) 


(thSereo) 


I behold, (theory.) 


KaXeat 


(kaieo) 


I call. 


XoKca 


(laieo) 


I speak. 


fiMprvpea 


(martureo) 


I bear witness, (martyr.) 


*'irapaKaK4<a 


(parakaleo) 


I exhort, I comfort. (Paraclete.) 


TTOIEO) 


(poieo) 


I make, I do. (poet.) 


rrjpia 


(tereo) 


I keep safe, I keep, I observe. 


i^tXeo) 


(phlleo) 


I love, (philosophy.) 



VOCABULARIES 



123 



ayyeXos, ou 
dde\<li6s, ov 
avdpcoiroSf ov 
apros, ov 
SovKos, ov 
Odvarof, ov 
Seos, ov 
Kai 

Koa/ws, ov 
KvpLos, ov 
\a6s, ov 
Xdyos, ov 



Vocabulary 3 

(angelos) 
(adelphos) 



vofios, ov 



oKos, ov 
cprjfios, ov 
686s, ov 



(anthropos) 

(artos) 

(doulos) 

(thanatos) 

(theos) 

(kai) 

(kosmos) 

(kurios) 

(laos) 

(logos) 



(nomos) 



(oikos) 
fern, (eremos) 
fern, (hodos) 



angel, or messenger, (same word.) 

brother. 

man. (anthropology.) 

bread, plural "loaves." 

slave. 

death. 

God. (theist, theology.) 

and. 

world, (cosmic.) 

lord. 

people, (laity.) 

word, reason. (The termination 
"logy" in such words as "theo- 
logy" comes from this word.) 

law. (The termination "nomy" in 
such words as " astronomy" comes 
from this word.) 

house. 

desert. 

way. 

maiden, virgin. 



napBivos, ov fem. (parthenos) 
N.B. The ov is the termination of the Genitive case. It should be 
learnt With the words thus — ayyeXos, dyye'Xou "an angel." It is useful 
to learn nouns in this way because the termination of the Genitive 
shows to which declension they belong. All the nouns given above are 
masculine with the exception of the last three. For a further explana- 
tion see the next exercise. 



apyvpiov, ov 
fitfiKlov, ov 
Saifioviov, ov 
SevSpov, ov 
epyov, ov 
evayyc\u>v, oi 



Vocabulary 4 

(argurion) silver, money. 

(biblion) book. (Bible.) 

(daimonion) devil, demon. ^ 

(dendron) tree. 

(ergon) work. 

(euangelion) Gospel (evangelist, evangelical, the 

ev in the Greek is transliterated 

into "ev" in Latin). 



L24< 


VOCABULARIES 


'upov, ov 


(hieron) 


temple. 


i/ianov, ov 


(himation) 


garment. 


■uraidloVf ov 


(paidion) 


yomig child. 


ttXoTov, qv 


(ploion) 


boat. 


npo^aTOV, ov 


(probaton) 


sheep. 


TrpotrcoTTOVy ov 


(prosSpon) 


face. 


o-d^^aTov, ov 


(sabbaton) 


Sabbath. 


OTjp^lov, ov 


(semeion) 


sign, miracle. 


rcKrov, ov 


(teknon) 


child. 



All the nouns in the above table are neuter in spite of the fact that 
two of them mean "child." 



Vocabulary 5 

dydnt), ijy love. 

dKridcia, as truth. 

&p,apTia, as sin. 

"PX^' ^^ beginning. 

jSao-tXcia, as kingdom. 

yrj, yfis earth, land, (geology.) 

ypa<f>i], Tjs writing, in the plural " the Scriptures." 

SiKaioavvTi, rjs righteousness. 

flpjjVT], rjs peace. (Irene.) 

fKK\r)(ria, as church, assembly, (ecclesiastical.) 

ivToXri, jjs commandment. 

i^ova-ia, as power. 

(irayyeXla, as promise. 

^ari, j]s life, (zoological.) 

r/p^pa, as day. (ephemeral.) 

Kapbta, as heart. C dai/-^ i 6t ) 

K€(j>aKTi, rjs head. 

irapa^o\fi, r/s parable, (same word.) 

o-o(/)ia, as wisdom, (philosophy, i.e. the love of wisdom.) 

a-vvayaytj, ijr synagogue, (same word.) 

<j>(ovr), rjs voice, sound, (telephone.) 

Xapd, as joy. 

^vxri, v soul, (psychology.) 

Spa, as hour, (same word.) 



VOCABULARIES 



125 



Vocabulary 6 

dWd but. 

diro from, (followed by a Genitive case.) 

^aTTTUTTTjs, ov baptlst. (same word.) 

yap for. (never used as the first word in a sentence.) 

yXSo-o-a, rjs tongue, language, (glossary.) 

8e but,and. (neverusedastbeflrstwordinasentence.) 

,8e(r7rdTi;s, ov master, (despot.) 

So^a, rjs glory, (doxology.) 

fU to, into, (followed by the Accusative case.) 

«, e^ out of. (followed by the Gen. case; the second form 

is used before a word beginning with a vowel.) 

iv in, on. (followed by a Dative case.) 

6d\a(T(ra, r/s sea, lake. 

/laflijTTjf, ov disciple, (mathematics.) 

veavias, ov yoimg man. 

ov, oiiK, ovx not. (the last two forms used before a vowel.) 

oSv therefore, then, (never used as the first word of 

a sentence.) 

npo for, before, (followed by a Genitive case.) 

■irpo(l>fiTtjs, ov prophet, (same word.) 

a-iv together with, (followed by a Dative case.) 



Vocabulary 7 

good, 
beloved, 
holy. 
. eternal, (aeonian.) 
just. 

last, (eschatology.) 
difierent, or other, (hetero-doxy.) 
one's own. 
bad. (cacophony.) 
faithful. 

wicked, d wovr/pos the Evil One, 
first, (protagonist.) 
Note that alavios has only two endings. The masculine ending is 
used with feminine as well as masculine nouns. 



dya66s, t/, ov 
dyamiTos, ij, ov 
ayios, a, ov 
alavios, ov 
SUaios, a, ov 
(axoTos, r/, ov 
CTfpos, u, ov 
i&ios, a, ov 

KOKOS, 7], ov 

nuTTos, 7), ov 
novripos, a, ov 
wpSrros, t), ov 



126 



VOCABULARIES 



aya 
*avayi,va>irKa 
*a7roKTftJ/o» 

avros, Tjf u 

SlSdtTKlO 

CKfivos, rj, o 

'lovSaios, ov 

'laavrfs 

i£)jpu(T<r<o 

Kpd^a 

oStos, avrj], tovto 

neiOa 

TTC/Xn'tU 

*w€pi7rarea) 
'^(rvvdyai 
vcdf, ov 



Vocabulary 8 

I drive, lead, or bring. 

I read. 

IkiU. 

I release. 

he, she, it, also himself etc. (see next exercise.) 

I baptise. 

I teach. 

I glorify. 

I cast out. 

that, (see next exercise.) 

Jesus. 

a Jew. 

John. 

I preach, or proclaim. 

I cry aloud. 

this, (see next exercise.) 

I persuade. 

I send. 

I walk about. 

I drive together. 



*i7rdy(B I depart. 

<^epa> I bear, or carry. 

ffalpia I rejoice. 

The verbs marked * are compounded with prepositions, for the way 
in which they are augmented see page 22. 



Vocabiilary 9 

dn-doToXof, ov an apostle. 

Sid "through" of place or time, "by means of" when 

followed by a Genitive, "on account of," "because 
of" when followed by an Accusative. 

dtddo'fcaXos, ov a teacher. 

' 'Iijo-oOs is declined as follows : Nom. 'IijiroBs, Voo. 'IijffoB, Aoo. 'IijffoOi', 
Gen. Itjo-oC, Dat. 'IijiroS. It often has the article before it : this article must 
not be translated in English. 



VOCABULARIES 



127 



epyartjs, ov 
fvBis 
dpouos, ov 
'lepotTokvfia, av\ 
'lepova-dKrui ) 
Kapnos, ov 
KpiTtis, ov 

XlyOTT/ff, ov 

\l6os, ov 

Xvco 

juera 



olKoSecrvorr]!, ov 
ovpavoSj ov 
d<j>6a\ii6s, ov 
ox^os, ov 
Trpeir^vTepos, ov 
irpos 
TeXfflvi/s, ov 

TOTTOff, ov 

viro 

VTroKpirljs, ov 
Xpovos, ov 



a workman, a labourer. 

immediately. 

a throne, (same word.) 

(Neuter Plural 
Jerusalem. |(incieolinable feminine noun.) 
fruit. 

a judge, (critic.) 
a robber. 

a stone, (lithography.) 
I loose, 
"together with," "in company with-" when followed 

by a Genitive, "after" when followed by an 

Accusative, 
a householder, 
heaven. 

an eye. (ophthalmic.) 
a crowd, or multitude, 
an elder, (presbyter.) 

" towards," "to" when followed by an Accusative, 
a tax-gatherer, a publican, 
a place, (topic.) 

"by" when followed by a Genitive, 
a hypocrite, (same word.) 
time, (chronology, chronic.) 



aypos, ov 

dSiKLaj as 

ifiaprcoKos, ov 
*d7repxop'M 
*dT70<pivopMi 

anTOficu 

dpviofuu 
Sexopai 
*hUpxoiuu, 
fpyd^ofuu 



Vocabulary 10 

a field. (Latin "ager," hence agriculture.) 

injustice, wickedness. 

a sinner. 

I go away, I depart. 

I answer, (generally followed by a noun in the 

Dative.) 
I touch, (generally followed by a noun in the 

Genitive.) 
I deny. 
I receive. 

I go through, I go about. 
I work. 



128 



VOCABULARIES 



epxo/iai 


I go, I come. 


'la-pafjX 


Israel. (Indeclinable noun, Maso. gender.) 


M 


not. 


oiKobofiea 


I build. 


OS, ^, o 


who, which. 


TTopevofiai 


I go, I come, I make a journey. 




Vocabulary 11 


SpXOfLOl 


I begin. 


^ovXopoL 


I wish. 


ydfios, ov 


a marriage. 



oeo/ia( 

SiajSoXos, ov 
Biivafiat 



eyo) 
eK€i 
f\ev6epos, a, ov 

rilieis 

6epaireva 
'lopSavris, ov 
KoKos, ij, ov 
Kf\eva 
p4v 



otKta, as 
op^Xoyeto 

^TrapayyeWa 
IlavXor 



it is necessary, (impersonal verb always con- 
tracted.) 

I beseech, I beg. (deponent verb, not contracted, 
followed by a noun in the Genitive.) 

the devil 

I am able. (Pres. Ind. hivapai, Svvaa-ai, Sivarai, 
Svvdp^Ba, SvvaaSe, SvvavTw,, Imperf. ibvvapijv, 
eSvvao'O, eSwaTo, edvvdpeda, ihvvaaBe, edvvavro.) 

I. 

there. 

free. 

it is lawful, (impersonal verb.) 

we. 

I am willing, I wish. 

I heal. 

Jordan. 

good, beautiful. 

I command, I bid. 

a word used to contrast a person, or thing, or a class 
of persons or things, with some person, thing, or 
class mentioned after, (generally not translated. ) 

a house. 

I confess, (followed by a Dative of the person to 
whom the confession is made.) 

I command. 

Paul. 

1 Imperfect ijBe\ov. 



VOCABULARIES 



129 



ircipd^a I tempt. 

TTTifD^os, rj, OK poor. 

Sa/idpeta, as Samaria. 

<rv thou. 

Tv<j)\6s, tj, ov blind. 

vpeis you. 

*v7raKoia I obey, (followed by a Dative of the person 

obeyed.) 

wSe here. 



adtK€Q> 

*dvoLyo> 
Spxa 

^ BuzKovea 

blUKOVOSy ov 

e'Xfe'o) 

€v8vai 

eiXoyca 

e^Bpos, a, ov 
*KaTOiKea> 

on 
*irpo(l)riTtia 

fro^osi rj, ov 



Vocabulary 12 

I injure. 

I open. 

I rule, (followed by a noun in the Genitive. The 

Middle Voice means "I begin," see Voo. 11.) 
I serve, (followed by a Dative.) 
a servant, a minister, (deacon.) 
I pursue. 

I have mercy on. (eleemosynary.) 
I put on. 

I bless, I praise, (eulogy.) 
hated, as a noun "an enemy.'' 
I dwell in, I inhabit, (followed by an Accusative.) 
because, (also "that," seepage 53.) 
I prophesy. 



dyopd^d) 
*a9rd'yct) 
*dnoKdKv7rTa> 

^aoTa^a) 

iyyi^a 



^eKKonra 



Vocabulary 13 

I sanctify. 

I buy. 

I drive away. 

I reveal, (apocalypse.) 

I carry. 

I draw near, generally followed by a noun in the 

Dative. 
I cut down. 



1 Although not really compounded with a preposition this verb generally 
has the form SitikSvovv in the Imperfect. 



N. 



130 



VOCABULARIES 



eXjri'fiB 


I hope. 


eTotfidia 


I make ready. 


6aviM^a> 


I wonder at. (followed by an Accusative.) 


KoBapiia 


I cleanse. 


(CpUTTT-O) 


I hide, (crypt.) 


Xcnpos, ov 


a leper. 


irorafioS) ov 


a river. (Mesopotamia.) 


npao-a-a 


I do. (practice.) 


trKavSaXi^at 


I cause to stumble, or offend, (scandalise.) 


Taaarai 


I set in order. 


Ta^eas 


quickly, soon. 


<l)v\d(r(ro3 


I guard. 



Vocabulary 14 



(i/xapravo) 


I sin. 


dfivos, ov 


a lamb. 


/3aiVa> 


I go. 


yivaa-KCD, yiyvi>iTKa> I know. 


elbov 


I saw. 


finov 


I said, I spoke, I told. 


firaBov 


I suffered. 


etrx^ov 


I had, I held. 


f(j)ayov 


late. 


fikdov 


I came, I went. 


^veyKov 


I carried. 


*KaTaXet7ra) 


I leave. 


fiavdaucD 


I learn. 


oivos, ov 


wine. 


irdfT^^a} 


I suffer. 


Trivia 


I drink. 


irivTOi 


IfaU. 


TtoWd 


many things. 


tUtcd 


I bring forth. 


■<l>€vya 


I flee. 


2, 


0! 



VOCABULARIES 



131 



a, as\ 



aSvvaTos, t), ov 
A'yvjTTos, ov (fern. 
aXpio 
*a7rayye'XX(» 

Svvaros, 17, ov 
»»; 
'TUpaSrjs, ov 

KatpoSf ov 
*KaTaKpiva) 
kXiVtj, tjs 
KopvrjKios, ov 
Kafirj, rjs 
Mapidp. 
Mapla, 
pA^iupa, as 
oirioo) 

0T€ 

TrdvTa 
napa 



•jrapaKvTLKOSj ov 
TTOTrjpiov, ov 
(Tireipa 
aravpos, ov 
OTpaTiaTtjs, ov 
<l>atva) 

^apio'atos, ov 
KJiBeipio 
(f)v\fi, r]S 
Xnpa, as 



Vocabulary 15 

impossible. 

) Egypt. 

I take up, I take away. 

I announce. 

Bethlehem, (indeclinable.) 

possible. 

while, until. 

Herod. 

Joseph, (indeclinable.) 

time, season. 

I condemn. 

a bed, a couch. 

Cornelius. 

a village. 

Mary, (ii^declinable.) 

a sword. 

after, behind, (followed by a Genitive case.) 

when. 

I owe, I ought (when followed by an Infinitive). 

all things. 

when followed by an Ace. case "to the side of,'' 
"beside" (of places), when followed by a Genitive 
case "from beside," "from" (of persons), when 
followed by a Dat. case "near," "at the house 
of" (of persons). 

a paralytic. 

a cup. 

I sow. 

a cross. 

a soldier. 

I manifest, I show. 

a Pharisee. 

I destroy. 

a tribe. 

a widow. 

when, as. 



132 



VOCABULARIES 



attov auavos, o 
dXfKTmp oKeKTopos, 6 
dfiTTcXav dfiTreXauos, 6 
Spxav apxovTos, 6 
dtrrrip diTTepos, 6 
fl<av (Ikovos, fj 

ijyf/xtoi' fiye/iovos, 6 
6vpa, as, fj 
\ap.rrds \afi7rdBos, fj 
fiT/V lujvos, 6 
vv/KJiios, ov, u 

VV^ VVKTOS, ^ 

oSovs oSdiToy, 6 
Trals waiSos, 6 or fj 
nirpos, ov, (5 
noiiiT}v Ttoifiivos, 6 
(rakiTiyi a-akwiyyos, 6 
<rdp^ aapKos, tj 
moTTip iraynjpos, 6 
rpels 
<l>v\a^ (fyvKoKos, 6 

xdpis X"P"'°'i V 
^iTav ;(tT£i'or, 6 



Vocabulary 16 

an age. 
a cock, 
a vineyard, 
a ruler, (monarchy.) 
a star, 
an image, 
hope, 
a leader, 
a door, 
a lamp, 
a month, 
a bridegroom, 
night, 
a tooth. 

a child, a boy or girl, (pedagogue.) 
Peter, 
a shepherd, 
a trumpet, 
flesh, 
a saviour, 
three, 
a guard. 

I call, I make a noise, (of a cook) I crow 
grace, favour. 

a garment, especially an under garmen 
or shirt. 



Vocabulary 17 



mp.a aifJuiTos, to 
dvr]p dvSpos, 6 
a<l>€<ns d^iaeas, tj 
$anTurp,a ^anTio'iiaros, to 
^avCKtvs ^aaikeas, 6 
yivos yfvovs, to 
yovu yovaros, to 
ypdiifia ypd/iiiaTos, to 
ypafijxareii ypap.p.aTi(os, 6 



blood, (haemorrhage.) 

a man, a husband. 

remission, forgiveness. 

baptism. 

a king. 

a race, a nation, a generation. 

a knee. 

a letter (of the alphabet). 

a scribe. 



VOCABULARIES 



133 



yvvii yvvaKos, fj 
eras erovs, to 
SfXrjfjui 6e\r]fiaTos, ro 
6pi^ rpixos, fi 
dvyarrip Bvyarpos, fj 
lx6vs IxBvos, 6 
Kvav KVVOS, 6 
KtaKJjOSf 17, ov 

IKTavoia, Of, T) 
p.^Trjp prjTpos, i) 
oSs cords, TO 
waTrjp irarpos, 6 
TTvevfia TTvev/jiaTOSj to 
iroKis iroXeaSj fj 
wovs 7ro86s, 6 
irvp n'vposy to 
Tepas TepaTos, to 
vSap vSaros, to 
<j)5)s (jxarros, to 
Xfip X"P°h V 



a woman, wife, (gynaecology.) 

a year. 

will. 

a hair. 

a daughter. 

a fish. 

a dog. (Cynic.) 

dull, deaf, dumb. 

repentance. 

a mother. (Latin " mater.") 

an ear. 

a father. (Latin "pater.") 

spirit, wind, (pneumatic.) 

a city, (politics.) 

a foot, (chiropodist.) 

a fire, (pyrotechny.) 

a wonder, a miracle. 

water, (hydraulic, hydropathy.) 

light, (phosphorus.) 

a hand, (chiropodist.) 



Vocabulary 18 



aXrjBfis, d\rid4s 
dvatTTatns dvaaTd(rfas, ^ 
dpxupevs dpxtfpeos, 6 
dadfvfjs, es 
a^piui/, a<f>pov 
yovfvs yovinK, 6 
AaveiS, Aa/3/$, o 

eBvoS ^dvQVS, TO 

fl 

els, fiia, ev 

f , , , 
tepevs iepeas, 6 

Kpljia KpifUlTOS, TO 

Kpiaris Kpiircms, fj 

lidWov 

pxyas, /ifyoKri, fieya 



true. 

resurrection. 

a high priest. 

weak, sick. 

foolish. 

a father, an ancestor, in the pi. parents. 

David, (indeclinable.) 

a race, in the pi. the Gentiles. 

if. 

one. 

than. 

a priest. 

a judgement, a sentence, a condemnation. 

a judgement. 

more. 

great. 



134 



VOCABULARIES 



litjSeis, HJjbeiila, fitjbfv 

VfKpos, a, ov 
ovofia ovoptaTos, to 
opos opovs, TO 
ovdels, oi/befila, oitbev 
was, naira, irav 
irioTis ir'urreais, rj 
TToXuf, 7ro\X^, iroXt! 
prilia pTjpaTOS, to 
iTKoros tTKorovs, TO 
o-JTf'p/ia trwepiioTos, to 

UTOpa (TTOfiaTOS, TO 

aafia (raparos, to 
vyifjs vyiis 



no one (with the Imperative, Infinitive 

etc.). 
no more. 

dead, (necropolis.) 
a name, (synonym.) 
a hill, a mountain, 
no one. (with the Indicative.) 
all, every, 
faith. 

many, much, (polygon.) 
a word, a saying, 
darkness. 



(hygienic.) 



a mouth, 
a body, 
whole, healthy. 



Vocabulary 19 

aKadapTos, ov unclean. 

*a/i^(^aXXo> I throw round, I throw on this side and 

that, especially used of a net. 

'Avavias, 6 Ananias. 

'AvSpeas, ov, 6 Andrew. 

FaXtXaid, ay, fj Galilee. 

*8ia(rrreip(a I scatter abroad, I disperse. 

*fl(repxopai Fut. ela-cKeva-opm I go into, I enter. 



*e^epXopM 
1 evaYy(\i(opai 

'WXfias, 6 

MavoTjS, eios, 6 
*jrapayivopai 

*napdyio 
nfvTaKi(r)(i\ioi 

TTCOS 

SaTavas gen. Sarava, 6 
Si/Acoi/ Sipavos, 6 



I go out. 

I preach the Gospel. 

Elijah. 

Moses. 

I become near, I am present, I approach, 

I go to. 
I pass by. (lit. I lead past.) 
five thousand, 
how. 
Satan. 
Simon. 

1 This is a compound word and is augmented like a verb oompounded 
with a preposition. 1 Aor. Mid. eiayyeKiaipriv. 



VOCABULARIES 



135 



<r7r€ipa(r(rta 


I tear. 


*iTvv\aKea> 


I speak with. 


TecrafpaKovra 


forty, (indeclinable.) 


tpo^o/iai 


I fear, I am afraid. 


(jto^os, ov, 6 


fear. 


XPVH^ XPW°''ros, TO 


money, nearly always used in the plural. 




Vocabulary 20 


*avax<i>pia 


I depart. 


'Avvas gen. "Avva, 6 


Annas. 


awoKpuTis, eas, f) 


an answer. 


Maxf], r/s, fi 


teaching, (didactic.) 


dUruav, ov, to 


a net. 


Svva/iis, eas, r) 


power, (dynamics.) 


hio 


two. 


iyyis^ 


near. 


*€K7r\ria'a'0fiai 


I am astonished. 


*ivipxoiuu 


I come upon. 


crri 


see Lesson 26. 


^ewiBvfieoi 


I desire. 


iirurraTTjs 


master. 


Zaxapias, ov, 6 


Zacharias. 


'lonnrj, i]s, fj 


Joppa. 


Kaid(j)as gen. Kaidtfia, 


6 Caiaphas. 


Kara 


see Lesson 26. 


Kojriofo) 


I toil, I labour. 


KpaT€a> 


I take hold of, I hold. 


AvtSa, as, fj 


Lydda. 


p.vT]p.eiov, ov, TO 


a tomb. 


ve(^fXj), rjs, Ti 


a cloud. 


oXor, i;, ov 


whole. 


ocros, ri, ov 


as much as, how great, as many as, how 




much. 


*irapaKafi,^a.v<i> 


I take with me. 


treTpa, as, fj 


a rook. 


*n poa-ipxofiai 


I go towards. 


*jrpocrKapTep€(a 


I remain, I endure. 


a-revos, r), ov 


narrow. 



136 



VOCABULARIES 



ITVVd 
TIS Ti 

ris Tl 



', ov, TO a council. (Sanhedrin.) 

who? which? what? 
a certain person, a certain thing. 



Vocabulary 21 



oKrjBas 


truly. 


*a7roXoiJo) 


I wash away. 


yiuoiuu, yiyvonai 


I become. 


iyivero 


it came to pass. 


^eK\4yofiai, 


I choose. 


*e7rij3dXX(i) 


I cast upon, I lay upon, I put upon. 


IBov 


behold, lo. 


*e7riKaXe<o 


I put a name on, I siu'name. Middle Voice, 




I call upon, I invoke. 


Ivxvpos, a, ov 


strong. 


*KaTaXa/i(3ai'<B 


I lay hold of. Middle Voice, I perceive. 


XojTTOr, I/, 01/ 


when used with an article in the plural "the 




rest," "the persons or things remaining." 


/ueXXffi 


I am about to, 1 delay, I tarry. 


/UKpos, a, ov 


little. 


VaOSy OVy 6 


the shrine of a temple, the Holy Place. 


veos, a, OV 


young, new. 


vvv, vvvl 


now, at this present time. 


oSoiTTOpCO) 


I go my way. 


oixi 


an emphatic form of ov " not," especially used 




in questions which expect the answei* 




"yes." 


TraXaios, u, ov 


old. 


*7r pocrcv)(oiial 


I pray. . 


pLnTa 


I throw, I cast. 


SoXofiSiv SoXo/iSyvos, 


d Solomon. 


*(rvv^ov\evoiiai 


I take council together with. 


(TXtO'lJia, aros, to 


a rent, a division, (schism.) 


Tpla 


neuter of rpels " three." 


rpo<i>f], r}S, fi 


nourishment, meat, food. 


vnep 


when followed by an Accusative "above," "be- 




yond," when followed by a Genitive, "on 




behalf of," "for." 



VOCABULARIES 



137 



Vocabulary 22 



dyaWida 


I rejoice greatly. 


ayairdo) 


I love. 


^odo) 


I cry, I shout. 


yevvda 


I am born. 


SiKaidra 


I justify, 


fOO) 


I allow, I permit. The augmented ten 




begin with ei. 


e^oSos, ov, fi 


departure, (exodus.) 


iparaia 


I ask, especially of asking a question. 


fdo) 


I live. 


Idofiai 


I heal. 


opdca 


I see. 


ir\rjp6at 


I fill, I fulfil. 


77 ov 


where 1 


*ir poa-Kwim 


I worship, (followed by a Dative.) 


TTVvddvofiai 


I inquire. 


tj-Tavpoco 


I crucify. 


Tandvout 


I humble. 


v>\r6<o 


I exalt. 


<j)avep6(o 


I make manifest. 



'EXXt)!/ 'EWrivos, 6 
*firiyiyva(TKai 
eirrd 
KaBas 
(cXeVTo) 
Koi/iao) 
KOivoa 

Adfapos, ov, o 
May8aX))i»^ 
ir€tpo(7jti6s, ov, o 



Vocabulary 23 

I lead in, I bring in. 

a Greek. 

I know. 

seven, (heptarchy.) 

even as. 

I steal, (kleptomaniac.) 

I sleep. 

I make common, I defile. 

Lazarus. 

Magdalene. 

temptation. 



138 



VOCABULARIES 



From this point verbs compounded with a preposition 
are no longer marked. 





Vocabulary 24 


aderea 


I set aside, I disregard. 


aTToKea-fi 


3rd sing. fut. ind. from aTroXXvm, I destroy, 




I lose. 


Sc'o) 


I bind, I fasten. 


€l 


well. eS iroiclv means " to benefit." 


wapdSoa-K, fas, 17 


tradition. 




Vocabulary 25 


a\as dXaros, to 


salt. 


S\i(a 


I salt. 


aSpiov 


an Adverb meaning "on the morrow," 17 




ai!ptoi' = tomorrow (understand ij/iepa). 


yevonai 


I taste, (generally followed by a Genitive.) 


ivBabt 


here. 


KaraKia 


I loose (thoroughly), destroy. 


liepi/ivda 


I am anxious for. 


/ua-dos, ov, 6 


reward, pay. 


vofii^o) 


I think. 


opapa, aros, to 


a vision. 


oo-Tis 


whosoever, but in the N.T. practically the 




same as or, who. 


7r€pifidWcD 


I cast round. Mid. I clothe myself 


irepuTO-eva 


I surpass, I have in abundance. 


tno) n-ao) 


I am silent. 




Vocabulary 26 


avofila, as, fj 


lawlessness, wickedness. 


dnappfopai 


I deny. 


apyvpos, ov, 6 


silver. 


'Axe\8ap.dx 


Aoheldama. 


yvaords, ij, ov 


known. 


hitrpios, ov, 


a prisoner. 


eKTTopevopai 


I go out. 


fK<l)evyta 


I escape. 



VOCABULARIES 



139 



e^o) 


outside, (followed by the Genitive case.) 


dafi^iojiai 


I wonder, I am astonished. 


Bvaia, as, r] 


a sacrifice. 


'laKa^os, ov, 6 


James. 


Kaurapeia, as, f] 


Caesarea. 


KaToKiOd^a 


I stone (thoroughly). 


XiddCa 


I stone. 


Ofiotos, a, ov 


like. 


nepuToros, t), ov 


surpassing, great. 


rrkijBvva 


I multiply. 


TrXi/o-iov 


an Adverb meaning " near," hence 6 ttXijo-ioi', 




one's neighbour. 


vpLv 


before. 


npoa-exo) 


I give heed to. 


avvea-Bio) 


I eat with. 


O'vv^jfriai 


I join in seeking, I discuss, I argue. 


a-vpa 


I drag. 


rpis 


thrice. 


irjoTOS, ov, 6 


Festus. 


ilXtTTTTOJ, ov, 6 


Philip. 


Xpvtros, ov, 6 


gold. 




Vocabulary 27 


d7ro8l8<afu 


I give back : in the Middle, I give away for 




my own sake, hence " I sell." 


SiSa/u 


I give. 


Ka'ia-ap Kaitrapos, 


6 Caesar. 


fivoTTjptov, ov, TO 


a mystery. 


7rapahibo>p.i 


I give up, I betray. 


nolos, a, ov 


of what kind? 


Trpofiepip-vaoi 


I am anxious beforehand. 


<pv\aKri, rjs, r) 


a watch, a guard, a prison. 


Xapiov, ov, TO 


a piece of land, a field. 




Vocabulary 28 


dyood, as, rj 


a market place. 


diroo-Trda 


I draw away. 


dirdevea 


I am weak or sick. 


0oXiJ, rjs, T) 


a throwing, a cast. 



140 



VOCABULARIES 



8f|toi, a, ov 


on the right hand. 


eliTTropevofiai 


I goto. 


el(T<l)fpa) 


I carry to. 


iv&niov 


before (of place), (followed by a Genitive.) 


KCLIVOS, rj, ov 


new. 


Kaiw 


I bum, I kindle. 


KaTevXoyea 


I bless. 


K:\dtt} 


I break. 


napoKeXvfievos, rjj ov 


paralysed. (Perf. part, from TrapaKva.) 


TrapariBTiiu 


I place beside, I set beside, I set before (of 




food). 


riBriiu 


I place, I lay down. 


Tifiri, jjs, fi 


honour. 




Vocabulary 29 


aviarriiu 


In the Transitive tenses "J cause to stand 




up," " I raise up," Intransitive "I stand up, 




rise, arise." 


d([)i<miiu 


In the Transitive tenses "I cause to stand 




away,"- " I remove, separate," Intransitive 




" I stand away from." 


eXxvo) 


I drag. 


€p,irpo<r6fv 


before, (followed by a Genitive.) 


evTfKka 


I command. 


enaipto 


I raise up. 


eniKafi^dua 


I lay hold of. 


luTTjfU 


In the Transitive tenses " I cause to stand," 




in the Intransitive tenses " I stand." 


KaB'umjp,i 


In the Transitive tenses "I set up," "I 




establish," "I appoint." 


Xv^voSf ov, 6 


a lamp. 


fiaprvs p.dpTvpot, 6 


a witness, (martyr.) 


lifpl^a 


I divide. 


/letTos, T), ov 


middle. 


lifTavoea 


I change my mind, repent. 


^pos, a, ov 


dry, withered. 


olKcrvfiAvr), r/s, fj 


the inhabited land, the world. 


6fU)i6o} 


I make like, I compare. 



VOCABULARIES 



141 



iravTa^ov 
napio-nifu 

naioiiai 

reKfirjpioVj ou, to 
va-repoSf a, ov 



everywhere. 

In the Transitive tenses "I cause to stand 

beside," " I present." 
I cease. 

a certain proof, 
last, 
false. 



aKoXovBia 

d(j)iTffU 
SflKVVfU 

fv6eas 

ev-)(apuTria> 

daptreca 

ojba 

ovpdvios, a, ov 

o^iiKeTTis, ov, 6 

otjifiXrjpaf arof, to 

TrdvTOTC 

irapdirTatpOj aTOSj to 

7r\avdop.ai 

npinov 

(Tvvir]iu 

Tare 



dXX^Xovr, as, a 

aTtaXeia, as, fi 

SiaKoyi^opai 

hiairopivop,aL 

eirepayrdto 

cTncvvdya 

vr)tjT€vai 

naTia 

Trpoa-KoKeaj 

virop.ovr), rjs, f/ 

(fipoveto 



Vocabulary 30 

I follow, (followed by a Dative.) 

I let go, I let alone, I allow, I forgive. 

I show. 

immediately. 

I thank. (Eucharist.) 

I am of good courage. 

I know. 

heavenly. 

a debtor. 

a debt. 

always. 

a fault, a transgression. 

I err. (planet.) 

fitting. 

I understand. 

then, (at that time.) 

Vocabulary 31 

one another. (Nominative not in use.) 

destruction. 

I discuss. 

I make my way through. 

I ask. 

I gather together to. 

I fast. 

I trample on. 

I call to, I summon. 

patience. 

I think. 



TABLES OF VERBS 
THE REGULAR VERB 

As there is no single verb in Greek which is found in every tense, 
it has been found necessary in the following table to give tenses from 
several verbs in order to present it complete. 

The tenses of the verb Xum are given as far as possible, and the 
tenses which do not occur in that verb are supplied from the verbs 
TrdiTxa, yiveirdai, (nreipeiv. 

The names of the tenses given in brackets are those by which they 
are commonly called in Greek grammars. They are however in many 
cases misleading {Short Syntax, sections 83, 84). 

It is unfortunate that we are compelled by the uses of grammarians 
to use the name "tense" in connection with the forms of the Greek 
verb. It directs our attention too much to the time of the action of 
the verb, whereas it was the state', rather than the time ', that was most 
prominently before the mind of a Greek. The time of the action of 
the verb is often left to be inferred from the context, and cannot be 
certainly told from the form of the verb. This is almost invariably 
the case with moods other than the Indicative, and is sometimes the 
case in the Indicative mood itself. 

To the Greek mind the forms to which we give the names " Present " 
and "Imperfect" denoted continuous or repeated action. 

The forma to which we give the name "Perfect," or "Pluperfect" 
denoted action complete at the time of speaking, the results of which 
were regarded as still existing. 

The forms to which we give the name "Aorist" denoted a simple, 
indefinite action, and were always used where no stress was laid on the 
continuity, completion, or incompletion of the action denoted by the 
verb. 

The Future tense in Greek, as in EugUsh, refers to future time 
in all its moods, and is thus an exception to the principle that the 
tenses of the moods other than the Indicative do not denote time in 
Greek. 

' See pages 177, 178. 



THE REGULAR VERB 



143 



Tenses denoting continuous or repeated action 

Active Voice 



(1) In Present time. 
(Freseut Indicative) 
\va 
"Kveis 
"Kiel 
Xiofiev 
"Kvere 
\vov(Ti 



(2) In Past time. 
(Imperfect Indicative) 
e\vov 
eKvfs 
eKve 

iXvere 
eXvov 



(3) At a time denoted by the context; 
(Present Imperative) (Present Subjuuetive) (Present Optative) 



Xvere 

\viT<o(rav or \vovTa>v 



(Present Infinitive) 
Xiieiv 



Xu7/S 

\vri 
Xvoifiev 

Xut/Tf 

Xvao't 



Xvoifu 

\vois 

Xvoi 

Xvoififv 

Xvoire 

\voiev 



(1) In Present time. 
(Present Indicative) 
Xuo/iai 
XiJi; or Xuet 
Xverai 
Xud/icfla 
Xveo-Bf 
Xvovrai 



(Present Participle) 
\v0P, Xvovtra, \vov 
\vovTos K.r.X. (see p. 72). 
Middle and Passive Voice 

(2) In Past time. 
(Imperfect Indicative) 

eXvofiTjv 

c'Xuou 

eXuero 

eXvofieda 

eXvovTO 



(3) At a time determined by the context. 
(Present Imperative) (Present Subjunctive) (Present Optative) 



\vov 

\v4it6(o 

\vea-de 

Xvea-BuTav or \veir6av 



(Present Infinitive) 
"KveirOai 



Xiafiai 

Xu.17 

Xuijrat 

XvafJteOa 

XvrjaBc 

Xiiavrai 



Xvoifiriv 

Xvoto 

Xuotro 

Xvoi/ieOa 

XvoLtrde 

XvOlVTO 



(Present Participle) 
Xvofievos, I), ov 



144 



THE REGULAR VERB 



Tenses denoting action in Future time 





Active 


Voice 




(Future 


(Future 


(Future 


(Future 


Indicative) 


Optative) 


Infinitive) 


Participle) 


\viTto 


Xvtroifu 


Xva-fiv '1 


Kvatau, Xvaovtraj Xvirov 


Xvo-fis 


\v(roi,s 




KvtrovTos K.T.\. (see p. 


Xu(7« 


'Kvaoi 




72, as Xiav). 


Xia-o/ifv 


Xitroijifv 






\vtr€T€ 


Xva-oire 






\v<Tov(n. 


Xiitroiev 








Middle 


Voice 




(Future 


(Future 


(Future 


(Future 


Indicative) 


Optative) 


Infinitive) 


Participle) 


Xva-o/juu 


Xvtrolfirjv 


\v(re<r6ai 


\va-6fuvos, tj, ov 


\1nr7j or Xvtrei 


Xvo-oio 






\va-erai 


XuaotTO 






Xvcrofieda 


XvaoifJ-eBa 






Xva-fo-Be 


\vaoia-6e 






XvirovTai 


Xvaowro 








Passive 


Voice 




(Future 


(Future 


(Future 


(Future 


Indicative) 


Optative) 


Infinitive) 


Participle) 


\v6rja-oiim 


Xvdrjo-oinriv 


XvSrjo-eaBai 


XyBria-ofieuos, 


XvOrjtrrj or XvOrj^ei 


Xv6rf(Toio 




fj, ov 


\v6ri(rfTat 


XvBrjITOtTO 






\v6r)a6jie6a 


\v6r)(Toiii.e6a 






\vdri(rea-df 


\v6ri(roi<rde 






Xudrjo-ovTai 


Xvdria-oivTO 







Tenses denoting simple or indefinite action 

Active Voice 

(1) In past time. 

(First Aorist Indicative) (Second Aorist Indicative) 



TKvtra 

TKvaas 

TKvtre 

iXvirafiev 

iXviraTc 

eXvirav 



€7ra$ov 

tiraBes 

tna6f 

eirddo^ev 

indScTe 

enadov 



THE REGULAR VERB 



145 



(2) At a time determined by the context. 



(First Aorist Imperative) 

Xv(TOV 

\v(raT€ 
\v<rdTa>(Tav or \v<rdvTav 



(First Aorist Subjunctive) 
Xucro) 

Xvarji 

XuoTjTe 
Xvo'OKrt 



(First Aorist Optative), 
Xitrmfu 

\v<raLs or Xucetac 
\va-aL or XvtreLe 
Xvcraifiev 
Xvcotre 
Xvaaiev or Xutrefai/ 



(First Aorist Infinitive) 
\v<Tai 



(First Aorist Participle) 
Xiaas, Xio'aa'a, XC(rav 
XixravTos k.t.X. (see p. 73). 



(Second Aorist 
Imperative) 
wd6e 

TToBere 

iradeTaaav or iradovTav 



(Second Aorist 
Subjunctive) 

n-dSa 

irdBrjs 

ndSrj 

irddafiev 

TrdSrjre 

Trddao'i 



(Second Aorist 
Optative) 
Trddoifu 
ndOois 
irdSoi 
ndOoifiev 
irdBoiTc 
TrdSouv 



(Second Aorist Infinitive) 
naSetv 



(Second Aorist Participle) 
Tra^coi/, 7raSov(ra, iraSov 
irddovTos K.T.X. (see p. 72, as Xvav). 



Middle Voice 



(1) In past time. 



(First Aorist Indicative) 
iXvadfj-riv 
eXvcra 
iXviraTO 
e\v(rdiifda 
iKv<ra(r6f 
eXvaavTo 



(Second Aorist Indicative) 
eyevofiTjv 
eyevov 
eyivsTO 
eyevo/ieBa 
cyiveade 
iyevovrq 



10 



146 



THE REGULAR VERB 



(2) At a time determined by the context. 
(First Aorist Imperative) (First Aorist Subjunctive) (First Aorist Optative) 



Xvtrai 

\vird(r6a> 

\vcratr6e 

Xvtrdo'&atrav or \v(rd(rOa)v 



XviTa/jim 

XvcrrjTcu, 
XvaafieBa 

\v(r<i>VTai 



XviTOLO 

XitroiTO 
\v<raiiie6a 
\virauT6e 
\v<raivTO 



(First Aorist Infinitive) 
\va'a(r6at 



(Second Aorist 
Imperative) 
yevov 
yeve<T6a> 
ycvecdc 
ym>c<r9ttMrav or yevcirBcav 



(First Aorist Participle) 
Xvaafievos, r), ov 

(Second Aorist 
Subjunctive) 
yivafitu 
yevrj 



(Second Aorist 
Optative) 



(Second Aorist Infinitive) 
yeviaSai 



y€VOLfl7)V 

yevoLo 

yevijTai ydvoiTO 

yevafieffa ycvoifuda 

yevriadc yevourdf 

yevoatrai yevoivTo 

(Second Aorist Participle) 
yevofievos, 17, ov 



Passive Voice 
(1) In Past time. 

(First Aorist Indicative) (Second Aorist Indicative) 

eKvOr/p itrirapipi 

ikvBijs c(nTaprjs 

eKvari eandprj 

eXvOTjfiev etrndprjfiev 

e\v6t)Te itrirdprp'e 

eXvorjaav €trirdpr](rav 

(2) At a time determined by the context. 

(First Aorist Imperative) (First Aorist Subjunctive) (First Aorist Optative) 

XvBtiti \v6& \vdeLJiv 

Xydrfrm \v6tjs XvBeirjS 

XvBiyrf Xvdxi Xydeirj 

\v6riratrav or \vB4vtwu \vd&p,ev XvBfiripev or XvdfXpev 

XvO^Tt \vdeir)Te or XvdcTre 

\v6S)(Ti XvOfiTjtrav or XvBeitv 



THE REGULAR VERB 



147 



(First Aorist Infinitive) (First Aorist Participle) 


XvBrjvat 


Xvdfis 


, Xu^ettra, \v6ev 




\v6ivTos K.r.X. (see p. 73). 


(Second Aorist 
Imperative) 


(Second Aorist 
Subjunctive) 


(Second Aorist 
Optative) 


ffirdprjBL 


(nrapSi 


fTirapeLrjV 


aTraprjro} 


a-nap^s 


a-irapfLTjs 


a-TrdprjTe 


(Tirapij 


crnapeirj 


anafyrfUXTav or aitapivrav 


(TirapSip.ev 


tTTTapelrjiuv or (rn-ape'ip.fv 




<T7raprJTC 


aTrapetrjTe or a-Trapelrf 




tnrapSxTi 


airapeirja'av or artrapeUv 



(Second Aorist Infinitive) 
tTTraprivaL 



(Second Aorist Participle) 
airapeiSf &irapeLiTa^ tTirapiv 
(TTrapevTOs K.r.X. (see p. 73, as \vdcls). 



Tenses denoting perfect or completed action 



(1) 



Active Voice 
In Present time. 



(First Perfect Indicative) 
\4\vKa 
\fXvKas 

\4\vK€ 

XeXvKafiev 

XeXvKare 

XeXvKafn 



(Second Perfect Indicative) 

WfTTOvda 

ireirovdas 

ninovBe 

TreTrovda/iev 

TTCTrovBare 

ireTTQvdao'i 



(2) In Past time. 

(Pluperfect Indicative) 
cXeXuKcti/ 

eXcKvKet 
e\€\vKeip.ev 

fXfKvKflTf 

fXfKvKfo-av or iXcXvKeurav 



10—2 



148 



THE REGULAR VERB 



(3) At a time determined by 


the context. 


(Perfect Imperative) (Perfect Subjunctive) (Perfect Optative) 


\4XvKe 


XcXvKO) 


XeXuKO(/u' 


XeXvKiTto 


XfXvKrjS 


XfXvKOlS 


\e\vKfTf 


XeXvKiy 


\e\vKoi 


\f\vKfTairav or XeXuKovTo))' 


\f\vKtoiifV 


XeXiKOi/ifV 




XeXwKijT« 


\e\vKOtTe 




XeXuKaxTt 


\e\vKOl€V 


(Perfect Infinitive) 


(Perfect Participle) 


XfXvKcvai 


XfXvKcof, XeXvievia, XeKvKos 




XeXu/cdroi k.t.\. (see p. 91). 


Middle and Passive 1 


Voice 


(1) In Present time. 


(2) 


In Past time. 


(Perfect Indicative) 


(Pluperfect Indicative) 


Xe'Xu/uai 




eKeXiifaju 


XeXuo-at 




iXeXvao 


XeXurai 




i\f\vTO 


\f\vfi.eBa 




iXeXv/ieSa 


\cKvcrde 




eXeXvade 


\f\vvTai 




iXeXvvTo 



(3) At a time determined by the context. 
(Perfect Imperative) (Perfect Subjunctive) (Perfect Optative) 



XeXvcro 

X(Xv(r0cD 

XcXv(rde 

XeXv<r6o>aav or XeXv<T6a)v 



(Perfect Infinitive) 
XeXiaBai 



XeXv/ievos & XcXvitevos tajv 

* It 

II V II "V 

XeXvfiivoi (Sfifv XeXvfiivoi cir/iifv or eliiev 
„ ^re ,, fHJTf or eire 

,, S(Ti „ etijo-av or eUv 

(Perfect Participle) 
XiXvjiivos, ij, ov 



CLASSES OF VERBS 149 

.9 *< _ «> -a 

a ° S 3 s g 

1 &■ »> I. I. J- J- I- ^ a & 1-^ 



is |if 

3- a. s o fc 

?.<S b b t: 



a § o S 

■S- «e ^ t 

o Si S -fe 





© 


OS 












CD 


h 












s. 


1 










cd. 


2 


04 










55 


■5 












p^ 














w 


1 












f* 












§ 


1 

GO 


1 




a 






OQ 


, 


, . 




o 




^ 


w 


1 


1 




'0 




f 


■^ 


> 












(^ 


o 












o 


5 














IS 


.a 


I 


1 




4iilt 






■0) 


a e 






o s; >S uji ^ 




_fi 








•B- w -B- -B- ft. 




» 














,Q 














^ 
















9 












rt 

g 
^ 


3 


4. 


i 3 

1j 


3 
b 


.4 14 






»8 


'0 '3 


^0 


-o »f ca. 




o 













p. fe E - 









& sv M b C3 c; 

0S-t3?5-?=»b > 

S^a C^K^b a tl b ^ 

§.'*'« I <S S 5-«S -a o 
J^Jo ««^!:bb?*'3! 






i -i i §-b^ -l-^l t-3^ 1 1 

A< ,§■ -g -5 »?-S.ia ?:««<=§<» b b b 



3 3 



l>Q003Oi-l(y<M-*>O 



150 CLASSES OF VERBS 

■a S "O 

.5 g js <s b .a o 

§«« S ffl '«§mSP'''IS 

'^;5a is3 £ <SJ a£g ^-JS^. ^ as 

S J a ;, 2 

.ss ;f^ . agisg. .?" I^g- 



5 -e a 



I «■ §- I S i. "I ° £ ° I V ?: ?: 

^ # I II I "" 



^^g 



OS S a „ . ^ 5! 



iy "IB i=? KS "to •«» 2 .La *»« « ** -S "B -to tl* *to »to ^ "to *«< 

a ft -g .2 






lit 4} Mi ■* t4 |i I It 

iCiti ub "€■« ra-a-Sv bt- ub 



iCi b u b -€■ « <« 

CO CS 



3 S^ 

I— I 

"<ib «Mb -e-K 



a a 

S .3 .3 ,3 "a. 



3 b S 

-6 ^1 ? a § g 3 

N t ig s J J 

■6-K -B"iS« bC Mb 



CLASSES OF VERBS 151 




•2. 

s> 

I 

BO 

s 



a 



f^ S 



5 a ; 

o ^ 

Si 8 

■" "S fe „ .i 

C 3 <a. b .« 

.S -S ^ 

^ I i b ■& , 

>■ Cc4 a -3 S a. 

<a b K « 



C3 

s 




0*3. 



152 CLASSES OF VERBS 



g-^^-i a § -i-i -s ^1 ..sis'! 

a ';: « 

<u :d 93 



w „p. "^ -^ «j„ »-^ p- "^ .d 



S 5 g S 

taSgo o M«ao -*^ a. 

P^ §: a. 5: -^ B fe 3-^ d b^ 

■a^s^l" a. ^gl^g* i I 

1 ^ Si o -S 

1 'J 1 ^ 

<Q.S *"=■ 0«-eT3aB- o SB 

^ "si „ , 

I'll!} 'i ih! illi * W* 

» :S S3 

o ^ M 3 

4 a M^sa bi<- 

^,33 ~a3 ,3aa '£"ab| 

o3a«Sg C ga ^"S'O <5>'-3R 



GLASSES OF VERBS 



153 






<s 



a. ©HI Hmao sSS 



-It Q. Q. -©. * 



•e- 



-^ .S 






•J. -So 



3-3-3- -5 8 









c3 









1^ 



> 


"o 


Q 




-*1 


-a 




H-4 

s 






s 





13 




.s s 


:& 


H '' 


sr- 


c8 , 


a -e- 


p^-s 


(hjr-^w 


o g 


-u ^ 


o q 


O CO 


,© ,<o 


?i .S 


'S'g 


^^ : 


B* 2* 


aa e3 ^ 


■ a a 


-g s- 



-s -!■-£ 






=a ' a- 3 

„ » 3 o a. S 

§3 i^ I I ^ -H .I 3^.3 1 

tl «b ''^'^ o "5 ^-e-^i^ '<■'"• *= 






K 


b . 


c 


-1 <S 




/< ^ 





^ o 


^ 


fe b 




-B -O 


.^ 


3- 3 


n 


S »3 


o 


'< '5 


s 


4'% 




-a -a 




t-:co 




ira iQ 



ScOCDCDOS 500503 





a 








3 


g- 


.3 




3 




>( 


o 


3 


f^ 


,s- 


■S 


,J< 


-Ml 


t-^ 


00 


05 


d 


1-5 


<o 


CO 


SO 


r- 


J:^ 



APPENDIX I 

PREPOSITIONS 

Prepositions are words joined with, and nearly always placed before, 
nouns or pronouns so that the preposition with the noun or pronoun 
forms a phrase equivalent to an adjective or adverb. 
Examples : Phrase equivalent to an adjective^ — 

The king of Britain. 
"Of" is a preposition, and with the noun "Britain" it forms a phrase 
equivalent to an adjective. Compare the expression "His Britannic 
Majesty.'' 

Phrases equivalent to an adverb — 

He walked for six hours. 
They sat by the sea. 

The phrases "for six hours" and "by the sea" are equivalent to 
adverbs, for they qualify the verbs "walked" and "sat." 

In English all prepositions are followed by a noun or pronoun in 
the accusative case, or "govern" an accusative case, as it is expressed 
sometimes. 

Prepositions were originally adverbs, and are so still when they are 
compounded with verbs. Most of the local and other relations which 
are now expressed in Greek by a preposition followed by the Accusative, 
Genitive, or Dative case of a noun or pronoun were originally expressed 
by the use of a suitable case of the noun or pronoun alone. 

In the language from which Greek is derived there were cases which, 
when standing by themselves, sufficed to denote local, temporal and 
other relations. 

The accusative case denoted extension, or motion towards. 

The ablative case denoted separation, or motion from. 

The locative case denoted place where, or rest at. 

The instrumental case denoted the means by which an action was 
accomplished, and it also had an idea of association. 

In that form of the Greek language with which we are acquainted 



PREPOSITIONS 155 

we find the form which we call the Genitive case used to express the 
meaning of the Ablative case as well as its own proper meaning. 

The form which we call the Dative case expresses the meanings of 
the Locative and Instrumental cases as well as its own. 

We are therefore justified in saying, as a practical rule, that the 
Grenitive in Greek denotes motion from, and that the Dative denotes 
rest at, and can also be used to express the instrument of an action, 
although these are not the proper original meanings of these cases. 

As we have already stated the Accusative denotes motion towards. 

These cases called in the help of adverbs to make their meaning more 
precise, and, when these adverbs had become fixed in this use by custom, 
they were treated as a separate part of speech, and called Prepositions. 

Prepositions do not properly speaking "govern" the cases of the 
nouns which they precede. The case is really the governing element in 
the expression : the preposition only serves to make clear the exact 
sense in which it is used. 

But as language developed the prepositions mastered the cases. 

As the horse in the fable called in the man to help him against the 
stag, and allowed him to get on his back, and then found that he him- 
self had lost his liberty, so the cases called in the help of the prepositions, 
and then found themselves weakened and finally destroyed. 

In English, French, Italian, and to some extent in modern Greek the 
cases have disappeared, wholly, or in part, and the prepositions do the 
work which they once did. For example we say "of a man" where 
the Greeks said avdpmnov and "to a man'' where the Greeks said 
dvBpamto. 

In the New Testament we can see this process going on. Prepositions 
are used with the case of a noun where the case alone sufficed in 
Classical Greek. 

For example the simple Dative was used in Classical Greek to 
express the instrument ; but in New Testament Greek ev with the 
Dative is so used. 

Example : 

Kvpte, €L Trard^ofiev ev fia^atpa; 
Lord, shall we strike with the sword? Lk. xxii. 49. 
In estimating the meaning of a prepositional phrase (i.e. a preposition 
followed by a noun) the proper course to adopt is first to consider the 
force of the case of the noun and then to add to this the root meaning 
of the preposition. The combination of the two ideas will generally 
explain the meaning of the phrase. 



156 PREPOSITIONS 

If the proper force of the case is kept in view it will explain how 
the same preposition can have such wholly different meanings with 
different cases. The meaning of the case is really far more important 
than the meaning of the preposition. 

We may see the joint influence of the case of the noun and the root 
meaning of the preposition best by considering some preposition that 
is used with all three cases. 

For example napd means "beside." 

When it is used with the Accusative it denotes motion to beside or 
motion alongside of. 

When it is used with the Genitive it denotes motion from beside. 
When it is used with the Dative it denotes rest beside and is 
translated "near," or "with." 
Examples : 

Accusative. irepnraT&v 8e irapa TrjV 6a\a(T<rav Ttjs TaKiKaias eidev 
8vo dde\<l)ovs. 

And walking along the side of the sea of Galilee he saw two brethren. 
KOI epi^av airoiis irapa roiis woSas airov. 
And they cast them at his feet. 
Genitive. iyivero avBptoTros (iTTfOTaX/ifi'oj Trapa 6eov. 

There came into being a man sent from God. 
do^av Trapa dvBpairav ov Xafi^avta. 
I receive not glory from men. 
Dative. einXa^opevos TraiSlov eoTTjtrev avTo Trap* eavTa, 

Taking a child he placed him near him. 
KQi nap' aiiT^ ijifivav Trjv rjp,epav iK.eivJ)v. 
And they remained with him that day. 

Prepositions connected with one case only 

The uses of the prepositions given in the following tables are those 
which occur most frequently in New Testament Greek. 

The use of Classical Greek is somewhat different. 

The meaning printed in black type after each preposition may be 
regarded as indicating the root meaning of the preposition ; it also 
generally indicates the meaning of the preposition when compoimded 
with a verb etc. The student is advised to master these meanings 
thoroughly by learning them by heart, and to pick up the derived 
meanings in the course of his reading, remembering what has been 
stated above as to the importance of the meaning of the case in decid- 
ing the meaning of a prepositional phrase. 



PREPOSITIONS 157 

Prepositions connected with the Accusative only. 

avd up. (Frequent in composition with verbs, but rare 

before a noun.) 
fis into. 

Prepositions connected with the Genitive only. 

avn over against, instead of, in return for. 

QTro away from (from the exterior). 

cK out of (from the interior). 

irpo in front of, before of time or place. 
Prepositions connected with the Dative only. 

ev in of time or place. 

a-iu together with. 

J^otes on the above prepodtions 

ava occurs in the English word analysis iivoKvais) a thorough 
loosing or loosing up. 

The likeness between the prepositions avrl, airo, ix, irpo, iv and the 
Latin prepositions ante, ab, ex, pro, in is obvious. 

They occur in such English words as "antipope'' a bishop set up 
over against, or as a rival to, the Pope, "antipathy" a feeling against a 
person or thing, "abstraction" a, taking away, "expulsion" a driving 
out, "propulsion"' a driving forward, "intrusion"' a thrusting in. 

(riv is found in many English words such as "sympathy,"" "symphony" 
{avinraBiia, (rvnt^avla). 

Prepositions connected with the Genitive and Accusative 
bia through. With the Ace. on account of, owing to. 

With the Gen. through, throughout, by means of. 
Kwrd down. With Aco. down along, during, with regard to, 

according to. 

With Gen. down from, down upon, against. 
fiera among. With Ace. after. 

With Gen. with, among. 
vepl around. With Ace. about, around, of place or time. 

With Gen. about, concerning, on account of. 
\nr4p over. With Ace. above, beyond. 

With Gen. on behalf of, for the sake of, concerning, 
in-d under. With Ace. under. 

With Gen. under the influence of, hence "by" of 
the Agent after Passive verbs. 



158 PREPOSITIONS 

Notes on the above prepositions 

hta is found in such words as "dialect" a language spoken through 

a district, " diagram " etc. 

Kara is found in "catastrophe" which means a turning upside down. 

Iiera is found in the word " metaphysics" that science which is above 
or beyond the science of physics. 
It is also found in the words "metaphor," "metamorphosis," but 
there it has the sense of change, of transference from one state 
to another, which it commonly has when compounded with 
a verb etc. in Greek. "Metaphor" means the transference of 
a word properly referring to one set of objects to another 
set of objects. " Metamorphosis '' means a change of form. 

irepi is found in such words as "perimeter" the length of a thing all 
round, "peripatetic" a man who walks about. 

imip is the same word as the Latin "super." It occurs in such 
English words as "hypercritical," over critical. 

Prepositions connected with the Accusative, 
Genitive, and Dative 
ivl upon. With Aco. upon (placed on), up to, as far as. 

With Qen. on, in the presence of, in the time of. 
With Dat. on, at, on account of, in addition to. 
irapa beside. With Ace. to the side of, beside, beyond, contrary. 
With Gen. from beside, from (of persons). 
With Dat. near (generally of persons). 
npos towards. With Ace. towards, up to, in reference to, with 
regard to. 
With Gen. from. (Very rare in N.T.) 
With Dat. at, close to. 

Notes on the above prepositions 
fVj is found in the words "epitaph" an inscription on a tomb, 

"epigram" a writing on a given subject. 
irapa is found in the word " parable" the placing of one thing beside 

another for comparison. 

Prepositions compounded with verbs etc. 

In English certain words which are generally classed as prepositions 
are joined with verbs and nouns to form compound words. 
Examples : undertake, overtake, outbid, 

overcoat, outrigger. 



PREPOSITIONS 



159 



But very frequently these "prepositions" are written after the word 
with which they go, and separately from it. In this case it is plain 
that these so-called "prepositions" are really adverbs. 
Examples: They went away. 

We took over the business. 
This coat is quite worn out. 
In Greek the "prepositions" are generally joined to the words which 
they qualify, and form compound words. 
I send away, aTrotrreXXo). 
I drive together, or gather together, avvaya. 
A synagogue (a gathering together), trvvayayrj. 
An assembly (a body of men called out), ekkXtjo-io. 
Chosen out, ekXektos. 
In some cases two " prepositions" may be joined to one word : 

avTiTrapipxpfiai I pass by opposite to. 
Consider the force of the "prepositions" in the following com- 
pound words: 

I go up. 

I go away. 

I go through. 

I go into. 

I go out of. 

I come upon. 

I go by the side of. 

I go towards (especially of going towards people). 

I go with. 

I go in. 

I go down. 

I,go before. 

I speak against, I contradict. 

I have over, I excel. 

I remain under, I endure. 



avep^Ofiai 

dnepxpiuu 

SiepXOiim 

el(T4p-xpp.aL 

e^cpxa/iai 

iiTip)(op.ai 

■napipxofxai 

Trpocrfpxop.ai 

(TVv€pxop.ai 

KaTa^alva 
irpo^alvd) 
diTtXeyw 
V7r€pex<0 

Notice also : 
aTTOKaXuTrro} 
€irifTTp4^<a 
€7riKa\4ofiai 
wpoaKoKfOfUu 
wpoirKVvea 
Trpocrev^o/iai 



I cover away from, I uncover, I reveal. 

I turn towards, I turn again, I return, I repent. 

I call upon, I surname. 

I call to myself, I summon. 

I kiss my hand to, I worship. 

I pray to. 



160 PREPOSITIONS 

In all these examples of compound words the "prepositions" have 
the same meanings which they have when they are used before the case 
of a noun or pronoun. 

Certain of them however have a somewhat extended or different 
meaning when they are used to form compound words. 

For example dvd in composition means not only "up" but also "over 
again," "anew" (the Latin "re") and also "back," and "to and fro." 

ava/SXeVo) means not only "I look up" but also "I look anew," or 

"I receive my sight.'' 
dvajTin-To) means "I fall back," or "I recline." 

lifTa in composition generally has the sense of change or alteration. 
jicTa^aiva I pass from one place to another, I remove, I depart. 

fieravoim I change my mind, I repent. 

fierdvoLa repentance. 

irapd from its meaning of "beside" or "along" gets a further sense of 
passing on one side and so of averting, neglecting, 
transgressing. 

vapepxofiai I pass by the side of, I pass from the side of, I pass 
away. 

wapaffaiva I go by the side of, I violate, I transgress. 

napaiTeopm I avert by entreaty, I beg off, I refuse, I excuse myself. 

irapaKoim I hear amiss, I disobey. 

vno from its meaning "under" gets the sense of subjection or in- 
feriority. 
vnaKoia I list«n to, I obey, I submit to. 

viraKor) obedience. 

vnorda-a-ofioi I order myself under, I submit to. 

Certain "prepositions" such as djrd, Sid, Kord, o-w sometimes 
practically lose their local meaning in composition and denote that the 
action of the verb with which they are connected is to be regarded 
as fully accomplished. 

Some such compound words are : 



dnoKTeiva) 


I kill 


KaTfO-dia 


I eat up. 


dnoWvfu. 


I destroy. 


KaraXciTru 


I abandon. 


dvoKapifidvo) 


I receive to the full. 


KaroiKco) 


I inhabit. 


bmpAva 
kaTepyd^ofiai, 


I remain. 
I perform. 


avvTrjpeai 


I keep safe. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 161 

The following compound verbs which differ greatly in meaning from 
the simple verbs from which they are formed should be carefully 
learnt. 

dvayivatrKto I read. 

ajTOKpivoum I answer (I give a decision from myself). 

eirayyeXKofiai I promise (I announce concerning myself). 

■jrapayyeWa I command (I pass a message along a line). 

■napaKoXia I caU to my side, I summon, I admonish, I exhort, I 

entreat, I comfort, I encourage. 

virayco I withdraw myself, I depart. (I drive or draw under.) 

vwapx^i- He is (he begins below, he commences). 

Notice also the derived nouns inayyekia a promise, irapayyeXia a 
command, 6 TlapdKXrjTos the Advocate, or the Comforter. 



APPENDIX II 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 

Conditional Sentences are sentences which contain a subordinate 
clause which states a supposition and a principal clause which states 
the result of the fulfilment of this supposition. 

The subordinate clause is called the protasis, and the principal 
clause is called the apodosis. 

Example : If you do this you will become rich. 

Here "If you do this" is the Protasis, and "you will become rich" 
is the Apodosis. 

The Protasis is introduced by ei "if." 

The particle ilv is regularly joined to el in the Protasis when the 
verb in the Protasis is in the Subjunctive mood: ci combined with liv 
forras idv, ^v, av. 

The negative of the Protasis is p.fi and that of the Apodosis is oi. 
In the New Testament, however, oi is sometimes found in a Protasis, 
especially when the verb is in the Indicative mood. 

The construction of Conditional sentences varies according as the 
time of the supposition is Past, Present, or Future. 

Future suppositions and one class of Present and Past suppositions 
have already been treated of, and will cause no difficulty. 

N. 11 



162 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 

Examples : Supposition in Present or Past time implying nothing 
as to the fulfilment of the condition. The Indicative mood is used in 
the Protasis just as in English ; any part of the finite verb may stand 
in the Apodosis. 

If thou art the son of God, command this stone... 
el vl6s €L Tov Oeov, elire ra \W(^ TOVTt^... Lk. iv. 3. 

For if Abraham was justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, 
ei yap 'A^paa/i, i^ epyav ibKamOr], ep^ei Kav)(riiia. Bom. iv. 2. 

Supposition in Future time. Either el with the Future Indicative 
in the Protasis and the Future Indicative or some other form expressing 
future time in the Apodosis, or eav with the Subjunctive in the Protasis 
and the Future or some form expressing future time in the Apodosis. 
The latter form is the more common. Note that in English we seldom 
use the Future in the Protasis of such sentences as these, but the 
Present, which has acquired a certain future sense. 

If we deny him, he will deny us. 

el dpvrjirofieda, KOKelvos dpvrjaeTat fjfjids. 2 Tim. ii, 12, 
If all shall be offended in thee, I never will be offended. 
el Trdvres (rKavhdKur6r]<rovTai ev (rot, eya ovSeTrore trKavSoKurBriaoiuu. 

Mt. xxvi. 33. 
If thou wilt thou canst make me clean. 
edv 60^7]! hvvairai fie KaBaplfrai. Mk i. 40. 

All this will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. 
Tavrd aoi Trdvra doxro), edv Tretrav Trpoa-Kvvrjarjs fioi. 

Mt. iv. 9. 
If I must die with thee, I will never deny thee. 
edv Serj fie avvairoBavelv iroi, oil firj <re dirapvrfO'Ofi.ai. 

Mk xiv. 31. 
It will be noticed that in all the sentences given above nothing is 
implied as to the fulfilment or non-fulfilment of the condition stated in 
the Protasis. 

But in some conditional sentences it is distinctly implied that the 
condition is not, or was not fulfilled- 

Examples. Present time : 

If you were wise, you would not do this. 
Past time : 

If you had been wise, you would not have done this. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 163 

In Greek such sentences as these have a construction which is so 
different from that which is found in English that it demands special 
attention. 

The form which such sentences take in English is no guide 
whatever to the way in which they should be translated into 
Greek. 

The rules given below must be carefully mastered and re- 
membered. 

When the Protasis states a present or past supposition implying 
that the condition is not or was not fulfilled, the secondary tenses 
of the indicative are used both in the protasis and the apodosis. 

The verb in the apodosis nearly always has the adverb av. 

The Imperfect denotes continued action. 

The Aorist simple fact. 

The time of the action is implied in the context rather than 
expressed by the tense of the verb^. 

Examples. Present time : 

This man, if he were a prophet, would know who and what the 
woman is... 

ovTOS fi rjv npo^rjTTjs, eyLvaxruev hv ris Koi TTOTOTr^ fj yvvrj... 

Lk. vii. 39. 
If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that speaketh with 
thee, thou wouldst have asked him... 

€1 fjSfis Trjv Sopeav tov 6eov, koi tIs iariv 6 Xiyav a-oi,...<rv &v i/TTjcrar 
avTov... Jn iv. 10. 

If ye believed Moses ye would beheve me. 
El yap eirurTcvere Mojuo-ei, iiriaTCveTe &v ijioL Jn V, 46. 

Past time : For if they had known, they would not have crucified 
the Lord of Glory. 

« yap eyvaa-av, oiic &v tov Kvpiov ri}! Sdfijs iaravpaxrav. 

.1 Cor. ii. 8. 

The following are further examples of suppositions contrary to fact 
or unfulfilled conditional sentences taken from the New Testament. 

1 (But as a rough rule it may be said that the Imperfect expresses an 
unfulfilled condition in present time, and the Aorist expresses an unfulfilled 
condition in past time.) 

11—2 



164 ACCENTUATION 

1. 17 0a(ri\eia rj efirj ovk eariv ck tov Kotrfwv tovtov, el eic tov KOfrfigv 
TOVTOv ?jv f] fiaiTiXfia fj ififj, oi vnjjpirai oi cfioi fjyavi^ovTo av tva jifi napahoBa 
Tots 'JovSaiois, 2. €1 IjfieBa iv rais rjiiipus tS>v waripav r]p,S>v, ovk av ijp,e6a 
KoivavoX iv T& atfian t&v n-poipryrav. 3. fl jffiei o oiKobeirnanis wola 
<j)v\aKJJ 6 KXfimjs ep)(eTai, fypfiyoprjafv hv. 4. el rfyawari fie e\apr]Te hv 
oTi iropfvopai vpos tov Trarepa. 5. el yap eyv&Keere tI eariv *EX€os deKa 
KOI oil 6v(Tiav, ovk hv KarehiKOireTe tovs dvainovs. 6. ovai o'oi Xopa^eiv, 
ovai croi Bri6<rai8dv, ori el iv Tvptf Kai Si8S>vi iyevovTO ai Svvdfieis ai yci/d- 
ftevat iv v/uv, waKai &v iv O'aKKa xal o'lroda iieTev6i}<rav. 7. Kvpie, el ^s 
&Se, OVK hv aireBavev 6 dSeXcjyos p.ov. 8. ft ifie jjSeiTe, Kal tov waripa pov 
hv fjdeiTe. 9. el rii0\oi ^Te ovk hv ei)(eTe dpapriav. 10. el 6 deos warTjp 
vpatv ^v, Tiyarrare hv ipe, eyat yap ck tov Beov i^rjXdov Ka\ ^K<a. 11. el eTt 
avSpcDirois rjpeirKov, Xpurrov SoSXos ou<c hv fjprjv. 



APPENDIX III 

ACCENTUATION 

There are three accents in Greek, the Acute accent ', the Grave 
accent \ and the Circumflex accent *. 

The Acute accent can stand on any of the last three syllables of a 
word, the Circumflex accent can only stand on one of the last two 
syllables of a word, the Grave accent can only stand on the last syllable 
of a word. 

A word with an Acute accent on the last syllable is said to be 
oxytone or sharp toned, if the accent is on the last syllable but one 
the word is said to be parozytone, if the accent is on the last syllable 
but two the word is said to be proparoxytone. 

A word with a Circumflex accent on the last syllable is said to be 
perispomenon, if the accent is on the last syllable but one the word is 
said to be properispomenon. 

A word with a Grave accent on the last syllable is said to be 
barjrtone or flat toned. 

The last syllable but two cannot be accented unless the last syllable 
is short. 

If the last syllable but one contains a long vowel or a diphthong and 
at the same time the last syllable is short, the last syllable but one is 



ACCENTUATION OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 165 

accented with a circumflex accent, if it has an accent at all, except in a 
few special words. 

A word which has an acute accent on the last syllable changes this 
to a grave accent unless it is the last word in a clause or sentence. 

For purposes of accentuation final oi and at are reckoned as short 
vowels except in the Optative mood. 

Examples : avdpamoi, vfja-oi : but iroirjo-oi (Opt. Mood). 

Accentuation of Nouns and Adjectives 

The place of the accent on the Nominative singular must be learnt. 
All other cases are accented on the same syllable as the Nom. sing, as 
far as the length of the last syllable permits. 

Examples : avdpiajros, dvdpanov, 

npayfia, 7rpdyp.aTos, ■jrpayp.a.Tmv. 

Exceptions. (1) The Gen. and Dat. of Oxytone nouns of the 1st 
and 2nd declensions are circumflexed. 

Examples : dpxhj ^PXV^: "PXTIj "PX"^"! "PX^'^' 
6f6s, 6cov, 6ea, 0fS>v, 6eois. 
SiKr), SikSiv. 

(2) The Gen. pi. of all nouns of the 1st declension is circum- 
flexed. 

(3) Most monosyllables of the 3rd declension accent the last 
syllable of the Gen. and Dat. in both numbers. 

Example : SXs, &\6s, &\i, aKav, i\a-l. 

Accent of Verbs 

Verbs throw back their accent as far as the length of the last 
syllable will permit. 

Examples : Sov\eva>, SmiXevovai, 8oi\eve, eSou'Xfuoi/. 

The accent of a verb compounded with a preposition can never 
precede the augment. 

Example : Trapelxov, not Trdpeixov. 

For the accentuation of contracted verbs see pages 23, 24. 

Exceptions. (1) Participles in inflection are accented as nouns. 

Example : ^nvkevcov, neut. ^ov\evov, not /SouXfuoi/. 

(2) The 1st Aor. Inf. Act., the 2nd Aor. Inf. Mid., Perf. Pass. 



1 66 ENCLITICS 

Inf. and Part, and Infinitives ending in vw, accent the last syllable but 
one. 

Examples : /SovXcfo-ai, yevi<r6ai, \eXvor6ai, XeXu/ievos, 
laravai, hibovai, \eKvKivai. 

(3) The 2nd Aor. Act. Part, and Participles of the 3rd declen- 
sion, except the 1st Aor. Part. Act., are accented like Oxytone adjectives. 

Examples : Xmayv, Xvdels, \f\vKac. 

(4) The 2nd Aor. Inf. Act. ending in eiv and the 2nd sing. 2nd 
Aor. Imperat. Mid. ending in ov have the circumflex accent on the last 
syllable. 

Examples : einelv, ytvm. 

Enclitics 

An Enclitic is a word which loses its own accent and is pronounced 
as if it were part of the preceding word. 

The Enclitics which principally occur in the N.T. are : 

(1) The oblique cases of the Personal pronouns of the 1st and 
2nd person singular : /te, fiou, ^ot, crt, <rov, <roi. 

(2) The Indefinite pronouns ns, n and the Indefinite adverbs 
TTorCj TTOVf iro)Sy etc. 

(3) The Pres. Ind. of tl/u I am, except the 2nd person singular. 
The word before an Enclitic does not change a final Acute accent 

to a Grave accent. 

If the last syllable of the preceding word is accented the accent of 
the Enclitic is dropped. 

Examples : (ro<l>6s ns, KaXdr eori. 

If the preceding word has an Acute accent on the last syllable but 
two, or a Circumflex accent on the last syllable but one, it receives an 
Acute accent from the Enclitic on the last syllable as a second accent. 

Examples : &vdpair6s ns, ovtos fori. 

If the preceding word has an Acute accent on the last syllable but 
one, it receives no second accent. A monosyllabic Enclitic here drops 
its accent, a dissyllabic Enclitic retains it. 

Examples : Xoyos ru, Xdyot nves. 

Parts of ei'/ii coming after oi retain their accent. 

Example : ouk iarlv oStos ayaSbs avdpanos. 



WORDS DIFFERING IN ACCENT OR BREATHING 



167 



Proclitics 

A Proclitic is a word which has no accent. 

The most important are the Articles 6, rj, oi, al, the prepositions e is , e k 
f I, iv, and the words ti, as, oi. 



Words differing in accent or breathing 



aWd 


but. 


SKXa 


other things. 


ai/rrj 


nom. fern. sing, of avTos. 


avrr) 


nom. fern. sing, of ovtos. 


airri 


another form of iavrri. 


avTai 


nom. fern. pi. of avros. 


avTai 


nom. fem. pi. of otros. 


(1 


if. 


el 


thou art. 


(Is 


to. 


Js 


one (masc). 


eu 


in. 


€V 


one (neuter). 


V 


nom. fem. sing, of the definite article. 


V 


nom. fem. sing, of the relative pronoun. 


V 


or. 


S 


dat. fem. sing, of the relative pronoun. 


S 


3rd sing. subj. from elvm. 


¥ 


1st sing, imperf. from flvai. 


n" 


another form of idv. 


riv 


ace. fem. sing, of the relative pronoun. 


6 


nom. masc. sing, of the definite article. 


O 


nom. and ace. neut. sing, of the relative pronoun. 


Tavra 


nom. and ace. neut. pi. of oSt-os. 


ravrd 


contracted for to aura. 


tIs, n, etc. 


who? what? 


Tis, n, etc. 


a certain man, a certain thing. 


a, oi 


0, Oh. 


& 


1st sing. subj. from tlvm. 


4 


dat. masc. and neut. sing, of the relative pronoun. 



APPENDIX IV 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

1. PARTS OF SPEECH 

Bt parts of speech we mean the various classes under vfhioh all 
words used in speaking and writing may be arranged. 
The names of the parts of speech are as follows : 
Noun. Pronoun. Adjective. 
Verb. Adverb. 

Preposition. Conjunction. Interjection. 
The Article, definite and indefinite, is also sometimes classed as a 

separate part of speech. 
A Noun is the name of anything. (Latin nomen, name.^ 

Examples : John, boy, sweetness. 
A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. (Latin pro, for : 

nomen, name.) 

Examples : I, you, they, who, that. 
An Adjective is a word joined to a noun to limit its application. 

(Latin adjectvm,, a thing thrown to.) 

Examples : Good, many. 
A Verb is a word by means of which we can make a statement, 

ask a question, or give a command about some person or 

thing. (Latin varhum, a word, so called as being the principal 

word in the sentence.) 

Examples : I run, we see. 
An Adverb is a word joined to a verb, adjective or other adverb 

to qualify its meaning. 

Examples : Slowly, very, there. 
A Preposition is a word joined with, and generally placed before a 

noun or its equivalent ', so that the preposition together with 

the noun forms a phrase equivalent to an adverb or adjective. 

(Latin praepositum, placed before.) 

Examples : At, with, by. 
A Conjunction is a word that joins together sentences, clauses or 

words. (Latin conjicngo, 1 join.) 

Examples : And, but, for. 

1 See page 184. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 169 

An Intekjection is a word thrown into a sentence to express a feeling 

of the mind. (Latin interjicio, I throw in.) 

Examples : Hallo, ha. 
The Definite Article The and the Indefinite Article A are always 

joined with nouns like adjectives. 



2. PARSING 

As this took is intended for older students it has not been thought 
necessary to adopt the method of deriving the reason for the names of 
the different parts of speech from examples. 

This is excellently done in a little book called How to tell the Parts 
of Speech, by the Rev. E. A. Abbott, published by Seeley, which the 
student who is altogether unacquainted with this subject is advised 
to get. 

A few rules and examples are however given which may be of 
assistance in determining the parts of speech. 

The first principle to be remembered is that no word should ever 
be parsed without careful reference to the function which it performs 
in the sentence where it occurs. 

In English many words having exactly the same form must be 
regarded as entirely different parts of speech, according to the place 
which they occupy in the sentence, and must be translated by wholly 
different words in Latin and Greek, according as their meaning varies. 

For example the word that may be (1) A demonstrative Pronoun. 
(2) A demonstrative Adjective. (3) A relative Pronoun. (4) A Con- 
junction'. 

(1) That is the man. (2) Give me that book. (3) This is the book 
that I want. (4) He said that this was the book. (4) He came that 
he might find the book. 

Again, the word considering may be (1) A verbal noun. (2) A 
participle. 

(1) Considering is slow work. (2) He went away considering the 
matter. 

Many words may be nouns or verbs, according to the place which 
they occupy in the sentence 

> Con8i<1er tho meaning of the word that in the following sentence, He 
said that that tliut that man said was false. 



170 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

Some snch words are : Bite, fly, rose, scale and sign. 

Other words may be adjectives or nouns, such as : Base, last, stout, 
spring, kind. 

Other words may be adjectives or verbs, such as: Lean, clean, blunt, 
idle, free. 

Keniembering then always to consider the word in connection with 
its sentence, the student should ask himself the following questions 
before parsing a word. They will help him to find out what part of 
speech it is. 

(1) Is it the name of anything 1 

Then it is a noun. 

(2) Can a noun which is mentioned or thought of before be 
substituted for the word without altering the meaning of the sentence ? 

Then it is a pronoun. 

(3) Does it answer any of the questions : What kind? Howmanyl 
How much! Which! Whose? In what order? with regard to some 
noun 2 

Then it is an adjective. 

(4) Does it make a statement, ask a question, or give a command ' 

Then it is a verb. 

(5) Does it answer the questions How ? When ? Where ? 

Then it is an adverb. 
Note. The words How? When? and Where? are themselves 
adverbs. 

(6) Docs it stand before a noun or its equivalent making with it a 
phrase which is equivalent to an adverb or adjective ? 

Then it is a preposition. 
(Another test of a preposition is that it is a word which is not a 
verb but which can stand before him and them, but not before he or 
they.) 

(7) Does it join sentences, clauses or words ? 

Then it is a conjunction. 

The words in the following sentence are parsed as an example. 
The man went guiokli/ down the street and did not turn to his righx hand- 
or to his left. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 



171 



THE 


Limits the application of the word 


Therefore it is that 




man. Tells us which man it was, 


kind of adjective 




i.e. some man already known. 


to which the 
name Definite 
Article is given. 


UkTS 


Is the name of something. 


Therefore it is a 
noun. 


^ENT 


Makes a statement about the man. 


Therefore it is a 
verb. 


QUICKLY 


Qualifies the verb went, tells us how 


Therefore it is an 




he went. 


adverb. 


DOWN 


Stands before the noun itreet, making 


Therefore it is a 




with it a phrase equivalent to an 


preposition. 




adverb because it qualifies the verb 






went, telling us where he went. 




THE 


See above. 




STREET 


Is the name of something. 


Therefore it is a 
noim. 


AND 


Joins together two clauses. 


Therefore it is a 
conjunction. 


DID TUEN 


Makes a statement about the man. 


Therefore it is a 

verb. 
Therefore it is an 


NOT 


Qualifies the verb did turn because 




it tells us how he did turn, i.e. not 


adverb. 




at all. 




TO 


See down above. 




HI3 


The noun man's can be substituted 


Therefore it is a 




for this. 


pronoun. 




But it also qualifies the noun hand. 


Therefore it is an 




telling whose hand it is. 


adjectiveaswell. 
Such words are 
called Pronomi- 
nal adjectives. 


BIGHT 


Qualifies the noun hand, telling us 


Therefore it is an 




which hand it is. 


adjective. 


HAND 


Is the name of something. 


Therefore it is a 
noun. 


OR 


Joins together the two clauses did 


Therefore it is a 




not turn to his right hand and {did 


conjunction. 




not twm) to his left. 




TO 


See above. 




HIS 


See above. 




LEFT 


See above. 





172 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

8. NOUNS 
There are four kinds of nouns ; 

(1) Proper Nouns. A Proper noun is the name appropriated 
to any particular person, place or thing (Latin propriut, belonging 
to a person). 

Examples: John, Mary, London, England. 

(2) Common Nouns. A Common noun is the name which all 
things of the same kind have in common (Latin communis, belonging 
to all). 

Examples : Boy, girl, town, country. 

(3) Collective Nouns. A Collective noun is the name of a 
number of persons or things forming one body. 

Examples : Committee, jury, army. 

(4) Abstract Nouns. An Abstract noun is the name of some 
quality, state, or action considered apart from the person or thing in 
which it is embodied (Latin absiractus, withdrawn). 

Examples: Goodness, whiteness, purity, servitude, running, 
walking. 

Number, Gender, Case 

Number. Nouns are inflected or changed in form to show 
whether they are singular or plural in number. 

A noun in the Singular number is the name of a single person 
or thing, unless it is a Colleotive noun (see above). 

A noun in the Plural number is the name of more than one 
person or thing. 

Examples : Singular Plural 

Horse horses 

Man men 

Ox oxen. 

Gender. In English all names of men or male animals are in the 
Masculine gender, all names of women or female animals are in 
the Feminine gender, all names of things without life are in the 
Neuter gender. Nouns used to denote pei-sons of either sex such as 
parent, sovereign, are said to be of Common gender. 

In Latin and Greek, although all names of men and male animals 
are Masculine, and all names of women or female animals are Feminine, 
names of things without life may be Masculine or Feminine in gender 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 173 

ag well as Neuter. The gender of a noun is generally determined by 
the ending of the Nominative Singular. 

Case. Nearly all traces of case-endings have disappeared from 
English nouns. The only surviving ending is that of the Possessive 
or Genitive case which is formed by adding 's to the end of a noun in 
the singular and s' to the end of the noun in the Plural. 

Example Nominative Possessive Singular Possessive Plural 
horse horse's horses^ 



4. ADJECTIVES 

In English, adjectives are never inflected, but have the same ending 
whether they qualify singular or plural, masculine or feminine nouns. 

In Latin and Greek they are inflected to show gender, number, 
and case. 

6. VERBS 
Verbs are of two kinds — Transitive and Intransitive. 

(a) Transitive Verbs. Transitive verbs are so called because 
they denote an action which necessarily affects or passes over to 
some person or thing other than the subject of the verb (Latin 
iransire, to pass over). 

Examples: I throw, I tahe. These statements are not complete; 
we ask immediately. What do you throw or take? The name of 
the person or thing affected by the action of the verb must be 
supplied in order to make a complete sentence — / throw a ball, 
I take an apple. The name of the person or thing which is affected 
by the action of the verb is called the direct object. 

A transitive verb is one which must have a direct object expressed 
in order to make a complete sentence. 

Intransitive Verbs. Intransitive verbs are so called because they 
denote an action which does not aftect or pass over to any person or 
thing besides the subject of the verb. 

Examples : I stand, The sun shines. These sentences are comi)lete 
statements in themselves. 

(5) Active Voice. A verb is said to be in the Active voice when 
its subject is spoken of as acting or doing something (Latin ago, I act). 



174 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

Passive Voice. A verb is said to be in the Passive voice whan 
its subject is spoken of as suffering or being acted upon (Latin patior, 
I suffer). 

Examples : Active, I love, I was hearing. 

Passive, I am loved, I was being heard. 

N.B. Only Transitive verbs can have a Passive voice. 

There are certain verbs such as I fall, I dip, etc. which do not 
speak of the subject as acting ; these are however regarded as Active 
verbs because they are Intransitive. 

(fl) Deponent Verbs. In Latin and Greek there are many 
verbs which are called Deponent verbs. These are verbs which have 
the form of Passive verbs, but which are Active in meaning. 

They are called Deponent because they have laid aside (Latin 
depono) a passive sense and assumed an active. 

Examples : patior, I suffer. airoKplvojuu, I answer. 

{d) The English Passive voice of any verb is formed by using the 
proper tenses of the verb to be with the Passive Participle (which 
usually ends in ed) of the verb of which we desire to form the Passive 
voice. 

Present simple Active I love. 

Present simple Passive I am loved. 

Past simple Active I loved. 

Past simple Passive I was loved. 

Future simple Active I shall love. 

Future simple Passive I shall be loved. 

This formation must be carefully distinguished from the use of the 
same Auxiliary verb to be with the Active PartxciMiB which forms 
the Continuous Active tenses of the verb. 

Present continuous Active I am loving. 
Past continuous Active I was loving. 

Future continuous Active I shall be loving. 

The student should be able to tell readily what voice, tense, and 
person any English verb is in ; unless he can do this he cannot possibly 
translate from another language with accuracy. 

It is good practice to go through the tenses of an English verb, first 
in the Active, and then in the Passive. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 175 

(e) Auxiliary Verbs. Auxiliary verbs are verbs which are used 
as aids (Latin ausnlia) to enable other verbs to form moods and tenses, 
which cannot be expressed within the compass of one word. 

Examples : I shall go. I would have gone. I shall have been 
sent. 

In English the use of these verbs is very common, no tense in the 
Active Voice except the Past can be formed without them, and they are 
used in every tense of the Passive voice. 

In Latin and Greelc they are rarely used. The only verb used in 
these languages as an auxiliary verb is the verb io he. 

Impersonal Verbs. Impersonal verbs are verbs which are not 
used in the first and second persons, but only in the third. 
Examples : It rains, it snows. 

The Copulative Verb, Verbs of Incomplete Predication. 

The verb to he has two meanings : 

(1) It is used in the sense of to exist as in the sentence Ood is. 

(2) It is used to join together two nouns or noun equivalents which 
denote the same person or thing when the person or thing denoted by 
the one is said to be identical with the person or thing denoted by the 
other. 

Examples : William was Duke of Normandy. I am the governor. 
This is he. 

As the nouns or noun equivalents joined together by the verb to be 
denote the same person or thing, they must always be in the same 
case. It is grammatically incorrect to say / am him. It is me, because 
Mm and me are in the Accusative case, and / and it are in the 
Nominative case. 

It is necessary to observe this rule very carefully in Latin and 
Greek where the Nominative and Accusative cases generally have 
different forms. 

This rule is sometimes stated as follows : 

" The verb 'to be ' takes the same case after it as before it." 

The verb to he may also join together a noun or a noun equivalent 
and an adjective, making a sentence which asserts that the quality 



176 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

denoted by the adjective is an attribute of the person or thing denoted 
by the noun or noun equivalent. This adjective always agrees with 
the noun in number, gender and case, in such languages as Latin 
and Greek. 

Examples : The king is proud. He is good. To err is human. 

From its power of joining nouns to other nouns or adjectives the 
verb to be is called the Copulative Verb. (Latin copulo, I link.) 

It is also called a verb of Incomplete Predication because it does 
not make sense when it stands by itself (except when used in the sense 
of to exist), but requires to be followed by a noun or an ad|ective which 
is called the Complement, becaiise it fills up the sense (Latin compleo, 
Ifll up). 

There are other verbs of Incomplete Predication besides the verb 
to be, some Intransitive and some Transitive. 

Such verbs are : Intransitive — become, seem, appear, etc. 

Transitive — make, declare, choose, think, consider, 

etc. 

When a verb of Incomplete Predication is Intransitive, or Transitive 

and in the Passive voice, the Complement refers to the same person or 

thing as the subject of the sentence, and must therefore be in the 

Nominative case. 

Examples : Peter became an Apostle. 
This place seems healthy. 
He is called our king. 

But when a verb of Incomplete Predication is Transitive and in the 
Active voice, the Complement refers to the same person or thing as 
the object of the sentence, and is therefore in the Accusative case. 

Examples : They made him captain. 
We choose you king. 
You consider me happy. 

This principle is obviously of great importance in Greek and Latin. 

(/) Person and Number. 

The First Person of the verb is used when the speaker is speaking 
of himself. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 177 

The Second Person is used when the speaker is speaking to 
another person or thing. 

The Third Person is used when the speaker is speaking of 
another person or thing. 

Examples : 1st person, I love. 2nd person, You. love. 3rd person, 
He loves. 

The use of the Singular Number denotes that only one person or 
thing is being spoken about. 

The use of the Plural Number denotes that more than one person 
or thing is being spoken about. 

Ride. The verb agrees with its subject in Number and Person. 

Note. The Plural of the second person You is almost always used 
in modern English instead of the second person Singular, even where 
only one person is being spoken to. 

But in Latin and Greek the Singular is always used when one 
person is being spoken to. 

{g) Tense. Tenses are forms which verbs assume to show at 
what time the action of the verb is represented as taking place. 

The times when the action may take place are (i) Past, (ii) Present, 
(iii) Future. 

The tenses in English have further subdivisions to show whether 
the action is represented as being (1) continuous or in progress, 
(2) indefinite or simple, (3) perfect or completed. 

Below is a table of the Tenses of an English verb in the Indicative 
Mood with the corresponding tenses of a Greek and Latin verb, given, 
where possible, with the names by which the tenses are generally 
called in Latin and Greek Grammars. 

It will be seen that there are more tense-forms in English than in 
Latin and Greek. 

The Latin and Greek Present stands both for the English Present 
Continuous and Present Simple, and the Latin and Greek Future for 
the English Future Continuous and Future Simple. 

The Latin Perfect has two meanings, one of which corresponds to 
the English Past Simple, and the other to the English Present Perfect 
or Perfect, as it is generally called. 

N. 12 



i78 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 



TIME 



STATE 


Past 


Present 


Future 


Continuous 


I was loving 


I am loving 


I shall be loving 




I used to love 


Amo 


Amabo 




Amabam (Im- 


(^(Xa 


0(Xijo-a) 




perfect) 








i<j>iKovv 






Simple 


I loved 


I love 


I shall love 




Amavi (Perfect) 


Amo 


Amabo 




€<j>i\r](ra (Aoi'ist) 


ipCK5> 


0(Xi;0'cii 


Perfect 


I had loved 


I have loved 


I shall have 




Amaveram 


Amavi (Perfect) 


loved 




(Pluperfect) 


ne<j>[h]Ka 


Amavero 




ineij)iKT]K.uv 




jrecfuXfjO-oiiai 


Perject 


I had been 


I have been 


I shall have 


Continuous 


loving 


loving 


been loving 




None 


None 


None 



(h) Moods. Moods are forms which verbs assume to show the 
way in which the action denoted by the verb is to be regarded, i.e. if it 
is a statement or fact, a command, a wish, or a thought. 

The Indicative Mood generally makes a statement, or asks a 
question. 

Examples : He goes. We shall run. Were you listening ? 

The Imperative Mood gives a command. 
Examples : Go. Come. Make haste. 

The Subjunctive Mood expresses a thought or wish rather than 
«a aotual fact. 

The uses of the Subjunctive Mood are so various, and its use in 
English is so different from its use in Latin and Greek, that it is 
impossible to bring it under any more exact definition. 

The student is warned against connecting any particular English 
meaning with the Latin and Greek Subjunctive, or with the Greek 
Optative such as that I might love, I should, or would, love. 

Practice, and the observance of seemingly arbitrary rules, will alone 
enable him to use these moods correctly. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 179 

The use of tenses formed with may, might, should, would, etc. in 
English is a most unreliable guide to the use of the Subjunctive and 
Optative in Latin and Greek. 

(i) Participles. Participles are verbal adjectives resembling 
verbs in that they can have subjects and objects, tenses and voices, 
and resembling adjectives in that they can qualify nouns. 

There are two Participles in English — the Active Participle ending 
in ing, and the Passive Participle ending generally in ed or rf. 

Examples: Loving, Loved. 

There is also a Past Active Participle formed with the auxiliary 
having and the Passive Participle. 
Example: Having loved. 

The Past Passive Participle is formed with the auxiliary verbs 
having been and the Passive Participle. 
Example : Having been loved. 

The Present Participle Passive is being loved. 

There is no Past Participle Active in Latin except in the case of 
Deponent verbs, nor is there any Present Participle Passive. Both 
however are found in Greek. 

As the verbal noun or Gerund in English ends in ing as well as the 
Active Participle care must be taken to distinguish them. 

If the word is a Participle, it can always be replaced by such a 
clause beginning with a Conjunction or a Relative. 

When it is a verb-noun it cannot be replaced by a clause. 

Examples : (1) Skating is a fine exercise. 

Here skating is a verb-noun and the subject of the sentence. 

(2) I like to see the boys skating. 

Here skating can be replaced by the clause when they are skating, 
and is therefore a Participle. 

(3) There is a dancing bear. 

Here dancing can be replaced by the Relative clause that is dancing. 
Therefore it is a Participle. 

Participles are also used with auxiliary verbs to form certain tenses 
of the verb as shown above. 

12—2 



180 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

U) Verbal Nouns, Infinitive, Gerund. The so-called Infinitive 
Mood to go, to see, to hear is really a verbal noun. 

The other verlsal noun in English is called the Gerund, and ends in 
ing — going, seeing, hearing. 

Verbal nouns resemble verbs in that they can have a subject and 
an object, tenses and voices: they resemble a noun in that they 
themselves can be the subject or object of another verb. 

Examples of the use of the Infinitive. 

(1) As Subject— To err is human. Here to err is the subject of 
the sentence. 

As is explained more fully in section 12, sentences in which the 
Infinitive stands as a Subject are more usually expressed in the 
following form' with au anticipatory it standing as the grammatical 
subject before the verb : 

It is hvman to err. 

It is a pleasure to see yojj. 

It is advisable to make haste. 

The object of an Infinitive standing as the subject of a sentence 
may be expressed aa in the following example : To forgive such crimes 
is difficult, or It is difficult to forgive such crimes. 

Here swh crimes is the object of to forgive. 

The only way in which the subject of an Infinitive standing as the 
subject of a sentence can be expressed in English is by inserting /or 
in front of it and making it depend on the predicate of the principal 
clause : It is difficult for a king to forgive such crimes. 

(2) As Object — The^/ wish to live. Here to live is the object of they 
wish. 

I wish him to live. Here him, is the subject of to live and the clause 
him to live is the object oilwish. 

I wish him to see you. Here him is the subject, and yow.the object 
of to see and the clause him to see you is the object oi I wish. 

The use of the Gerund is seen in the following examples : 

As Subject — Playing the violin is a delightful occupation. 

As Object — He loves playing the violin. 

(3) The Infinitive is also used after certain nouns and adjectives 
in an explanatory or epexegetic sense. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 181 

Examples : I have not the heart to do it. 

We are not worthy to gather up the crumbs under His table. 

It is time to depart. 

He was not able to answer a word. 

The Infinitive and the Gerund must be always treated as verbal 
nouns, and then their use, in the various constructions in which they 
occur, will explain itself. 

Notes ou the form of the English Infinitive. The English 
Infinitive is nearly always found with the preposition to in front of it. 

This preposition is no part of the Infinitive, but is a relic of the 
Dative case of the verbal noun in Old English. The force of the 
preposition has become so weakened that its presence in the sentence 
is generally quite neglected, and another preposition may even be put 
in front of it, as for example — What went ye out for to see? 

This Dative case of the verbal noun originally expressed purpose, 
and this use still survives in such sentences as I came to see ymc, He 
went to hear the hand. 

The proposition to may be omitted after certain verbs such as may, 
can, shall, hid, let, make, etc. 

Examples : / can do this, Let him go. Make him stay. 
Contrast with these the following examples, I am able to do this. 
Allow him to go, Force him to stay. 



6. SENTENCES 

A sentence is a group of words expressing a statement, a command, 
or a question. (Abbott.) 

Every sentence must consist of at least two parts : 

(1) The Subject — the name of that which is spoken about*. 

' The definition of the Subject of a sentenoe given above is not satis- 
factory. In the sentence Caesar conquered the Gauls, the Gauls are spoken 
about quite as much as Caesar. 

It is however the definition generally given. 

Dr Abbott suggests the following definition: " The Subject of a verb in a 
stating sentence is the word, or collection of words answering the question 
asked by putting Who or What before the verb." 



182 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

(2) The Predicate — the word, or group of words which expresses 
the assertion that is made, the command that is given, or the question 
that is asked about the subject. 

N.B. The Predicate is not necessarily identical with the verb, it 
includes the extensions of the verb and the objects, if any, as well as 
the verb. 

If the verb in the Predicate is Transitive it must have an Object. 
The object of a verb is the name of that towards which the action of 
the verb is directed. 

In considering a sentence, first pick out the verb. 

The best way to find the Subject is to ask the question who ? or 
what ? before the verb. 

The best way to find the Object is to ask the question whom ? or 
what? after the verb. 

Example : Caesar conquered the Gauls. 

Wh,o conquered? answer Caesar. Therefore Caesar is the Subject. 
Caesar conquered whom ? answer the Gauls. Therefore the Qauls is 
the Object. 

Either the Subject or the Predicate can be omitted when it can 
easily be supplied from the context. It is therefore possible for a 
sentence to consist of only one word. 

Examples : Go. Come. (Subject omitted.) 

Who did this ! I. (Predicate omitted.) 

The omission of the Subject often occurs in Latin and Greek 
because the forms of the verbs in these languages leave no doubt as to 
the number and person of the subject. It only occurs in EngUsh in 
the Imperative mood. When any part of the sentence is omitted it is 
sometimes said to be understood. 

Eveiy sentence must fall into one of five forms : 

(1) Subject and Intransitive Verb. 
Example : Subject Predicate 

The sun shines. 

(2) Subject, Transitive Verb, Object, 
Example : Sdbjbct Pbbdicatb 

Verb Object 

Caesar conquered the Qauls. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 183 

(3) Subject, Transitive Verb, two Objects, 
Example : Subject Predicate 

Verb Indirect Object Direct Object 
Socrates taught Plato phUosophy. 

(4) Subject, Copulative Verb or Intransitive Verb of Incom- 
plete Predication, Predicate Noun or Adjective. 

Bxamijle ; 



Subject 






Peedicatb 




Verb 




Predicate Noun 


William 


was 




a hing. 




Verb 




Predicate Adjective 


He 


is 




happy. 


Alexander i 


was called 


great. 


t, Transitive 


Verb 


of 


' Incomplete Predication, 



(D) Subject, 
Object, Predicate Noun or Adjective. 

Example : Subject Predicate 

Verb Object Predicate Noun 

Tyranny makes men slaves. 

Verb Object Predicate Adjective 

They call him happy. 

Note. As was mentioned above the Predicate of a sentence is not 
necessarily identical with the verb. It includes the verb and the 
object or complement with all the words which qualify them. 

Any part of a sentence may be amplified or extended by the 
addition of qualifying words. The learner must get into the habit of 
picking out the Verb and Subject first, and then finding out to which 
of the above forms the sentence, which he is going to translate, 
belongs. 

Take for example the following sentence : 

Caesar, the great Boman general, completely conquered the 
Gauls, the inhabitants of modern France, at the siege of Alesia. 

This is a sentence of form 2 with amplifications. 

A noun or pronoun may be amplified or extended in meaning by an 
adjective or an adjective equivalent. 

A verb, an adjective, or an adverb may be amplified or extended in 
meauing by an adverb or an adverb equivalent. 



184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

7. EQUIVALENTS 

The Noun, the Adjective, and the Adverb may be replaced by other 
parts of speech which can do the same work in the sentence. 

A word doing the work of a different part of speech, or a, group 
of words doing the work of a single part of speech, is called an 
eoiuivalent. 

A group of words forming an equivalent, and not having a subject 
or predicate of its own, is called a phrase. 

In the above example the words the great Roman general, in- 
habitants of modern France and at the siege of Alesia are all Phrases. 

A group of words forming au equivalent and having a subject and 
predicate of its own is called a subordinate clause. 

Example: Caesar, who was a great Roman general, completely 
conquered the Gauls, who inhabited modern France, when he took 
Alesia. Here all the groups of words in italics are Subordinate Clauses. 

NoPN Equivalents. A noun equivalent may be 

(1) A pronoun. You are happy. / am miserable. 

(2) A verb-noun, an Infinitive or Gerund. I like to run. Sleeping 
is pleasant. 

(3) An adjective. 

Both vnse axiA foolish know this. 

(4) A clause, generally called a noun or substantival clause. 

That you have wronged me doth appear in this. 
I see that you know him. 

Adjective Equivalents. An adjective equivalent may be 

(1) A verbal adjective or participle, or a participial phrase. 

A loving mother. A loved spot. We saw a man carrying wood. 

(2) A noun in apposition. 

Qmen Victoria. Edward the peacemaker. 

(3) A noun preceded by a preposition, or in the possessive case. 

The Houses of Parliament, 

Maid^ Causeway. 

The King of Britain. (Compare His Britannic Majesty.) 

Dogs /or hunting. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 185 

(4) An Adjectival Clause. 

The horse which I saw is there. At evening when the sun did set. 

Apveeb Eqpivalbnts. An adverb equivalent may be 

(1) A noun preceded by a preposition. 

He lives in the woods. 
He walked for six Iwurs. 

(2) A noun sometimes qualified by an adjective, but without a 
preposition. 

He died last night. 

They went home. 

We hope to live many years. 

(3) An Adverbial clause. 

I will see you when you come. 
I have come m ordar to see him. 
I will see you if you com^. 

(4) A participle or a participial phrase. 

We stood amazed. 

Hearing this I went home. 

The sum hamng set we went to rest. 

(5) An Infinitive. 

We came to see the spectacle. 
He is too foolish to be trusted. 



8. SENTENCES SIMPLE AND COMPLEX 

A simple sentence is a sentence which contains a single subject 
and a single predicate. 

A complex sentence is a sentence which contains a principal 
clause and one or more subordinate clauses depending on it, or on one 
another, as noun, adjective or adverb equivalents. 

It will be found convenient to keep the name sentence for complete 
statements occurring between two full stops. 

Groups of words forming part of a compound or complex sentence, 
and having a subject and predicate of their own, should be called 
clauses. 



186 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

Groups of words forming aii equivalent to some part of speech, and 
not having a subject and predicate of their own, should be called 
phrases. 

Two or more clauses which are not dependent on one another, but 
which make equally important and independent statements, are said 
to be combined by coordination, and to form a compound sentence. 
Such clauses are generally joined together by the coordinating con- 
junctions and, but, or, for, etc. 

E:cample : You do this, and I do that. 

Example of a Complex Sentence. 
When the captain drew near to the coast, he sent some of his men 
to land in order that he might get help, if the other ships, which had 
not yet arrived, should need it. 

(1) Main Clause : he sent some of hit men to land. 
Subject : He. Predicate : Sent some of his men to land. 

(2) when the captain drew iiear to the coast 

is an Adverbial Clause qiialifying sent. 
It tells us when he sent the men. 

(3) in order that he might get help 

is an Adverbial Clause qualifying sent. 
It tells us why he sent the men. 

(4) if the other ships should need it 

is an Adverbial Clause qualifying get help. 

It tells us under what conditions he would need the help. 

(5) which had not yet arrived 

is an Adjectival Clause qualifying ships. 
It tells us more about the ships. 

9. SUBSTANTIVAL OB NOUN CLAUSES 

A Substantival or Noun Clause is a clause which stands in the 
relationship of a noun to the principal clause or to some other clause in 
a complex sentence. 

(1) As Subject. That he is coming is certain. 

(3) As Object. He said that he was king. (Statement.) 

lie commanded thfit bread should be set before them. (Command.) 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 187 

He besought him that he might be with him. (Petition.) 

Do you know who he is ? "| 

He asked how it happened. \ (Questions.) 

Tell me wliere he lives. J 

You see how unjust he is. (Exclamation.) 

(3) As Complement, or Predicative Noun. 

My hope-is that you may succeed. 

(4) In Apposition to another noun. 

I had no idea that you would oppose me. 

When a Noun Clause which is the object of a verb states a fact, it 
is generally called a Dependent Statement. 

When a Noun Clause gives the words of a command or petition, it 
is generally called a Dependent Command or Petition. 

When a Noun Clause begins with an interrogative or exclamatory 
word such as who, what, where, whether, if, how, it is generally called a 
Dependent Question or Exclamation. 

All the Noun Clauses given above with the exception of the 
Dependent Questions and Exclamations are introduced by the con- 
junction that and contain a finite verb. 

In certain oases however an infinitive or a gerund may be used in 
Noun Glauses instead of a clause introduced by tliat and containing 
a finite verb. This is natural because the infinitive and gerund are 
verbal nouns. 

The infinitive is used frequently in Noun Clauses in Greek and 
Latin, it is therefore important to see how far the same construction 
prevails in English. 

It is used in English as follows : 

(1) As Subject. To err is human. 

It is a pleasure to see you. (See section 12.) 

(2) As Object. I declare him to he guilty. \ (Statements.) 

We believe him to he innocent, j 

He commanded them to go away. (Command.) 

(3) As Complement or Predicative Noun. 

My hope is to succeed. 

The use of the infinitive in a dependent statement is only found 
after a few verbs in English, such as / declare, I assert, I proclaim. 



188 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

I believe, etc. A clause introduced by that is by far the most common 
way of expressing a dependent statement in English, and can be used 
after any verb. 

The infinitive is frequently used in dependent commands or petitions 
in English, and indeed is the most usual way of expressing them. 

There are certain verbs such as I wish, I hope, I am able, I can, etc. 
which always take an Infinitive as their object. 

These are sometimes called Modal Verbs because they are con- 
sidered to add to the verb new ways of expressing its meaning. 

Examples : I wish to see the king. 

We hope to live many years. 

They can do nothing without you. (See 5/.) 

The use of the Gerund is seen in such sentences as : 
Subject : Healing the sick is a noble work. 
Object : I deny vsing the expression. 



10. ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES 

Adjectival clauses are introduced by the relative pronouns Who, 
Which, That, and their equivalents when, where, such as, etc. and 
qualify some noun in another clause just like an adjective. 

This is the man who sent me. 

This is the man whom I saw. 

We will do this in the evening when we meet. 

This is the place where I was horn. 

I can sell you a house such as yov, require. 

The word to which the relative pronoun refers, and which the clause 
which it introduces qualifies, is called the antecedent. 

In the first two sentences the word the man is the antecedent, in 
the others evening, place, and house. 

A Participle qualifying the Antecedent may take the place of an 
Adjectival Clause. 

We may write : 

I saw a man clinging to a mast, or 

I saw a man who was clinging to a mast. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 189 

11. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 

Adverbial Clauses are clauses which stand in the relationship of 
an adverb to the verb in another clause. 

Example : I will do this on condition that you do that. 

Here the clause on condition that you do that qualifies the verb 
/ will do just like an adverb. 

The sentence might have been written : I will do this conditionally. 

Example : I wUl do this when to-morrow comes. 

Here when to-morrow comes is an adverbial clause qualifying I will do. 

The sentence might have been written : I will do this to-morrow. 

Adverbial clauses may be divided into eight classes. 

(1) Final Clauses denoting purpose. 

(2) Temporal Clauses denoting time when. 

(3) Local Clauses denoting place where. 

(4) Causal Clauses denoting cause. 

(5) Consecutive Clauses denoting consequence. 

(0) Conditional Clauses denoting supposition. 

(7) Concessive or Adversative Clauses denoting contrast. 

(8) Comparative Clauses denoting comparison. 

Examples of Adverbial Clauses 

(1) He ran thai he might get home soon. 

(2) He ran when he got on the road. 

(3) He ran where the road was level. 

(4) He ran because he was late. 

(5) He ran so that he got home soon. 

(6) He ran if he was late. 

(7) He ran although he was early. 

(8) He ran as he was accustomed to do. 

The names given to the various kinds of Adverbial Clauses in the 
above list are names commonly given to them in Grammars. They 
are given here for that reason, and not because they have anything 



190 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

to recommend them in themselves. Some of the names are pedantic 
and obscure, and it is much better to speak of the clauses of classes 
1, 2, 3, 5, as clauses denoting Purpose, Time, Place, and Consequence, 
respectively. 

A Participle may be used to express some kinds of Adverbial 
Clauses. Care is often needed to distinguish such participles from 
those which take the place of Adjectival Clauses (see 10 above). 

If the participle can be resolved into a clause consisting of a 
conjunction and a finite verb it is used in place of an Adverbial Clause, 
but if it can be resolved into a clause introduced by a relative pronoun 
it is used in place of an Adjectival Clause. 

Example (1) : Knowing this, I returned home. 
Here knowing this obviously means since I knew this and is therefore 
an adverbial clause denoting cause. 

Example (2) : I saw a man clinging to a spar half a mile from shore. 

Here clinging to a spar might be replaced by who was clinging to a 
spar. This is a clause introduced by a relative pronoun and clinging 
to a spa/r must therefore be described as an adjectival clause. 

Example (3) : Seeing the man running away, I went after him. 
This might be equally well expressed as follows : 

Since I saw the man who was running away, I went after him. 
When the sentence is put in this form there is no difficulty in analysing 
it. 

Even Eelative Clauses are sometimes adverbial if they express 
cause or purpose. 

Example (1). We disliked our master who seemed to take a pleasure 
in pvmishing its. Here who seemed is equivalent to hecarise he seemed, 
and is an adverbial clause of cause. 

Example (2). They sent. men who should spy out the land. 

Here who should spy out the land is equivalent to in order to spy out 
the land, and is an adverbial clause of purpose. 

In analysing complex sentences pay very little heed to the foem, 
but be sure to find out what the meaning of the clauses is by putting 
them into other words if necessary. 



ENGLISH GEAMMAK 191 

12. PREPARATORY IT AND THERE 

This construction is so common in English that it seems to require 
.special mention. 

The subject is nearly always put before the verb in English ; indeed, 
as English nouns have no case endings to distinguish the subject from 
the object, the order of words in a sentence is the only way in which 
the subject can be distinguished from the object. 

But in certain cases, especially where the subject of the sentence is 
in the infinitive mood, the subject is placed after the verb. 

Then the pronoun it is placed before the verb to act as a preparatory 
subject and to show that the real subject is comiug. 

Example : It is good to walk in the way of righteousness. 

Here the real subject is to walk in the way of rigkteousness, and 
is good is the predicate. 

It is the preparatory subject, or the grammatical subject as it is 
sometimes called. 

The adverb there is used in the same way especially when the verb 
in the sentence is part of the verb to he. 

Example : There was once a boy who lived on an island. 
In this sentence the subject is a hoy. There should be parsed as a 
preparatory adverb. 

Neither of these constructions exist in Latin or Greek. 

The Latin or Greek for the examples given above are as follows : 

Bonum est ambulare in via justitiae. 
KoKov e'oTi Ttepiwarfiv ev rfj oSa Trjs SiKaioaivrjS. 

Olim fuit puer qui insulam habitabat. 
^v wore Trail bs Karu/cci vijaov. 



ENGLISH-GEEEK VOCABULAKY 



The numbers refer to the Vocabularies 



I abide, n4va 1 

I am able, Sivafuu 11 

I am about, fieXKa 21 

above, iwep with Ace. 21 

according to, koto foil, by Ace. 20 

Acheldama, 'Axe\Saiidx 26 

I am afraid, <l)o^4ofiai 19 

after, jierd with Ace. 9 ; oirla-a 15 

age, aliiv 16 

all, Ttas 18 

all things, Travra 15 

I allow, ida> 22; ai^ii/^t 30 

always, irdvTOTe 30 

Ananias, 'Avavlas 19 

and, Kai 3 ; 8e 6 

Andrew, 'AvSpcas 19 

angel, ayyeXos 3 

Ajinas, 'Avyas 20 

I announce, dirayyeKka 15 

I answer, anoKpivofiai 10 

answer, airoRpuris 20 

I am anxious, fifpiiivda 25 

I am anxious beforehand, npoju- 

pip-vdo) 27 
Apostle, ajrdoToXos 9 
I appoint, Kadiarrifii, 29 
I approach, irapayivopm 19 
I argue, arvv^rjTea 26 
I arise, dviaraiiai 29 
as, KoS&s 23 
as much as, So-oi 20 
I ask, aiT-cQ) 2 
I ask a question, iparrda 22 ; eTrt- 

pardta 31 
assembly, eicKXijo-ia 5 
I am astonished, e'/cn-Xijo-o-o/jai 20 ; 

daixfi4op,ai 26 



I ate, €(j)ayov 14 

bad, KaK^s 7 

I baptise, jSoTrrifeo 8 

baptism, ^ajmiT/ia 17 

Baptist, 'BartTurrfjs 6 

I bear, (^cp&i 8 

I bear witness, p.apTvpia 2 

beautiful, xaXos 11 

I become, -y/i/o/xai 21 

bed, kXiVij 15 

before (preposition), irpo 6 ; fV<B- 

TTiov 28 ; efiirpoadev 29 ; TrpiV 

26 
I beg, heopAu 11 
I begin, apxc/juu 1 1 
beginning, dp^T 5 
on behalf of, iirep with Gen. 21 
I behold, 6ea>p4(o 2 
behold! ISoi 21 
I beUeve, ■n-urreie> 1 
beloved, dyairrjros 7 
I benefit, eS iroUa> 24 
I beseech, dc'o/^ai 11 
beside, irapd 15 
Bethlehem, BijdXce/i 15 
I betray, n-apafit'Sia/u 27 
I bid, keXcuo) 11 
I bless, evKoyiio 12 ; KareuXayea> 

28 
blind, 1-0^X6! 11 
blood, alfia 17 
boat, TrXoIov 4 
body, o-mjua 18 
book, jSt^Xiov 4 
I am iDorn, ycvi>aa> 22 
bread, Spros 3 



ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY 



193 



I break, K\aa> 28 

bridegroom, vv\i^los 16 

I bring, tiya 8 

I bring forth, tIktoi 14 

I bring in, cltraym 23 

brother, abeK<\)6s 3 

I build, oiKoSo/ieo) 10 

I burn, Kaio> 28 

but, aK\a, 84 6 

I buy, dyopdfo) 13 

by, vno 9 

by- means of, 8td with Gen. 9 

Caesar, Kaia-ap 27 

Caesarea, Kaia-apela 26 

Caiaphas, Kmdipas 20 

I call, KoXfo) 2 ; (jjavea 16 

I call upon, iviKoKiofiai 21 ; npoa- 

KoKeo} 31 
I came, ^\6ov 14 
I carry, 0epo) 8 ; fiaoTa^a) 13 
I carry to, elat^ipat 28 
I carried, ijveyKov 14 
I cast, |3aXX<B 1 ; piirrto 21 
oast, ^o\ti 28 
I cast out, eK^dXXto 8 
I cease, iravop^i 29 
a certain man, ns 20 
child, TcKvov 4 ; Trais 16 
child, young, iratSiov 4 
I choose, €K\4yopai 21 
church, ekkXi/o-io 6 
city, irdXis 17 
I cleanse, KaBapi^a 13 
I clothe myself, nepi^aWofiai 25 
cloud, vf^eXj] 20 
cock, akfKTiap 16 
I comfort, irapaKoKito 2 
I come, fpxopxu, iropevofim 10 
I come upon, eirep^oiiai 20 
to come to pass, yiveadai 21 
I OO&mand, xeXevci) 11 ; napay- 

■yeXXffl 11 ; eWeXXo) 29 
commandment, evroXri 5 
I compare, ofioido) 29 
I condemn, KaraKpiva 15 

N. 



condemnation, Kpi/ia 18 

I confess, ojuoXoyem 11 

I continue, pevto 1 

Cornelius, Ko/jv^Xior 15 

couch, kXivij 15 

council, avvehpiov 20 

I am of good courage, Bapa-ea 30 

cross, (TTavpos 15 

1 crow, (fxavcai 16 

crowd, o;(Xos 9 

I crucify, o-raupdo) 22 

I cry, /Sddo) 22 

I cry aloud, xpafto 8 

cup, n-oTrjpwv 15 

I cut down, exKOTTTca 13 

darkness, o-Kdros 18 

daughter, dvydrrip 17 

David, Aauei'S, Aa^i'S 18 

day, fifiepa 5 

dead, vcKpos 18 

deaf, Koxjios 17 

death, ^dvaros 3 

a debt, d<^f iXij^a 30 

debtor, d(/)fiXeV7jr 30 

I defile, Koivdo) 23 

I delay, (he'XXcd 21 

demon, Sai/;tdi'wi/ 4 

deny, apveopm 10 

I depart, VTrdyco 8 ; dnepxapm 10 ; 

avax(opea 20 
departure, e^oSos 22 
desert, fprip.os 3 
I desire, evidvpia 20 
I destroy, (^Beipa 15 ; djroXXuti) 

24 ; KOT-aXijo) 25 
destruction, djrmXeja 31 
devil, fiai/ttdi/iof 4 ; fiidjSoXor 11 
I die, dnodvricrKa 1 
diflerent, erepos 7 
disciple, padrjTrjs 6 
I discuss, irui'fi)T€o) 26 ; StaXoyi- 

^OpLQL 31 

disperse, Siao-n-et'pffl 18 
I disregard, dBerea 24 
I divide, pepl^a 29 

13 



194 



ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY 



division, irxia-iia 21 
I do, TTOieo) 2 ; irpairiTa 13 
dog, KVtOV 17 
door, 6vpa 16 

down, Kara, foil, by Gen. 20 
I drag, <rvpa 26 ; cXkvo) 29 
I draw away, airoirnia 26 
I draw near, eyyi^a 13 
I drink, ttiVoi 14 
' I drive, Sya 8 
I drive away, aTrdya 13 
I drive together, avvdya 8 
dry, lijpor 29 
dumb, Kacjios 17 
dwell in, Karoifceiu 12 

ear, o^r 17 

earth, y^ 5 

I eat, ia-Sica 1 

I eat with, a-weadia 26 

Egypt, AtyuiTTOj 15 

elder, Trpetr/SuTepos 9 

Elijah, 'HXci'aj 19 

I endure, wpoa-KapTepdco 20 

enemy, ex^pAs 12 

I enter, clvipxojxai 19 

I err, n-Xavoo/iai 30 

I escape, iK<^evya 26 

I establish, KaSlarijiu 29 

eternal, aiuviof 7 

even as, xadcof 23 

every, iras 18 

everywhere, n-ai/ToxoB 29 

the Evil One, 6 wovtipos 7 

I exalt, v\fro<u 22 

I exhort, irapaKoKia 2 

eye, 6(j>daKp,6s 9 

face, npoaaiTov 4 
faith, TTitms 18 
faithful, iruTTos 7 
I fall, ttiVto) 14 
false, ^JAevSrjs 29 
I fast, vfiarcva 31 
father, ■n-arfip 17 
fault, irapanrafjux 30 



favour, x^P'^ 16 

field, dypds 10; x*"/"'"" 27 

fill, 7r\t]p6a> 22 

I find, evpiiTKtt) 1 

fire, TTup 17 

first, vparos 7 

fish, ix^us 17 

fitting, npiiTov 30 

five thousand, TrerTaKtirxiXioi 19 

I flee, (jjevya 14 

flesh, <rdp^ 16 

I follow, oKoKovdia 30 

food, rpo^T] 21 

foolish, a.<f)pfav 18 

foot, TToOff 17 

for (conj.), ydp 6 
for (prep.), irpo 6 
I forgive, a<f>ir]pi 30 
forgiveness, atjjecrK 17 
forty, T€(Taapd<ovTa 19 
free, i\ev6cpos 11 
from, oTrd 6 
fruit, KapTos 9 
fulfil, irXripoa) 22 

Galilee, raXiXam 19 

garment, ipdriov 4 ; x^rd)i' 16 

I gather together, eVio-vi'd'yai 31 

generation, yevor 17 

Gentiles, to e^i/t) 18 

I give, 8iSa>iii 27 

I give back, dnoSiSaiu 27 

I give up, napabibap.1 27 

I glorify, So^dCio 8 

glory, Sd^a 6 

I go, epxop,ai, wopevo/iai 10; /Saivca 14 

1 go about, bUpxojiai 10 

I go away, dTrtpx"/'"" 10 

I go into, flarepxofiai 19 ; eio-iro- 

pfvop,ai 28 
I go out, f^fpxoiiai 19 ; fRiropevo- 

pw. 26 
I go through, SUpxopm 10 
I go towards, npoaripxop^i 20 
God, fltds 3 
gold, xpva-os 26 



ENGLISH-GEEEK VOCABULARY 



195 



good, dya$6s 7; KoXos 11 

Gospel, evayyeXtov 4 

Gospel, I preach the, euayyeXi'fo/iai 

10 
grace, x"P'* ^^ 
great, /iiyas 18 
a Greek, 'EUi/k 23 
I guard, (fivKdorira 13 
guard, <j>vKa§ 16 

I had, eo-xov 14 

hair, dpi^ 17 

hand, x"'p 17 

hated, ixBpos 12 

I have, ?x<" 1 

I have mercy on, iKeka 12 

he, she, it, avros, airfi, avTo 8 

head, K60aX^ 5 

heal, Bepaireitt) 1 1 ; lao^ai 22 

healthy, iyi^s 18 

I hear, aKova 1 

heart, Kopbia 5 

heaven, oipavos 9 

heavenly, oupavios 30 

I give heed to, npoa-exio 26 

I held, ea-xov 14 

here, SSe 11 ; ivedSe 25 

Herod, 'H/jmSi/s 15 

I hide, KpvTTTa 13 

high-priest, dpxifpfvs 18 

hill, Spos 18 

himself etc., avrdr 8 

I hold, Kparittt 20 

holy, ayios 7 

honour, rt/i^ 28 

I hope, ikiri^tt) 13 

hope, ikiris 16 

hour, fipa 5 

house, o'koj 3; olnia 11 

householder, oiKoSeo-irori/s 9 

how, n-air 19 
I humble, Ta7reii»o<» 22 
husband, dvifp 17 
hypocrite, vreonpiri]! 9 



I, 



eyo) 



11 



if. El' 18 

image, «V<bi/ 16 

immediately, evOvs 9 ; evBias 30 

impossible, dSwoT-of 15 

in, e'l/ 6 

inhabit, KarotKcta 12 

I injure, dSiKea 12 

injustice, dStKi'a 10 

I inquire, irvuSdvofuu 22 

into, els 6 

I invoke, imiidK4op,ai 21 

Israel, 'lo-paijX 10 

James, 'idna^os 26 

Jerusalem, 'If po(rd\u/ia, 'lepov(r(xKr}fi 

9 
Jesus, 'Iijo-oSs 8 
Jew, 'lovbaios 8 
John, 'Imdvi;; 8 
Joppa, 'loTTTT?; 20 

Jordan, 'lopSavr/s 11 

Joseph, 'la>a-fi<j) 15 

journey, I make a, iropeio/iai 10 

joy, yapd 5 

I judge, Kpiva. 1 

g'udge, KpiTTis 9 

judgement, Kpip.a 18 ; Kp'uris 18 

just, hlKOlOS 7 

I justify, SiKaidra 22 
I keep safe, njpeo) 2 

I kill, aTTOKTEll/O) 8 

I kindle, Kai'm 28 

king, ;3a(riXeuf 17 

kingdom, iSao-iXfia 5 

knee, ydvu 17 

I know, yivaxTKO) 14 ; iiriyivafTKa 

23; o'Sa 30 
known, yvairros 26 

I labour, noind^w 20 

labourer, epydTqs 9 

lake, ddXa<r(ra 6 

lamb, d/iuos 14 

lamp, Xa/;t7rdr 16 ; \vxyos 29 

land, y5 ^ 



196 



ENGLISH-GBEEK VOCABULARY 



language, yXSo-o-a 6 

last, fo-xoTos 7 ; ua-Tepos 29 

law, vofios. 3 

it is lawful, eleo-Tt 11 

lawlessness, dvo/ila 26 

I lay down, rWij/ii 28 

I lay hold of, , KaToiKan^dva 21 ; 

ewiKafi^dua 29 
I lay upon, »7r(|3aXX(a 21 
Lazarus, Adfapor 23 
I lead, ^ya> 8 
I lead in, fl<rdya> 23 
leader, rjyejiitv 16 
I learn, jiavBavfo 14 
learner, liaBrfrf)! 6 
I leave, KaToKeiira 14 
leper, Xfjrpdj 13 
I let alone, a^i'jjp 30 
I let go, aijtlrjju 30 
letter, ypdnna 17 
light, (^ms 17 
life, fa>i7 5 

like, oiiows 26 , 

I make like, ojuotdo) 29 
little, fuKpos 21 
I live, fao) 22 
loaves, aproL 3 
I look at, /SXfVm 1 
I loose, Xuo) 9 
lord, Kvpios 3 

I love, (j)i\i<M) 2 ; oyaTraoi 22 
love, dyaTTTj 5 
Lydda, AvSSo 20 

Magdalene, MaySaX?;!']} 23 

maiden, napBivos 3 

I make, irqUio 2 

I make manifest, (^avtpom 22 

I make ready, ^Tot/ndfw 13 

man, axflpwtros 3; dv^p 17 

young man, veavias 6 

I manifest, (jiaivm 15 ; <j}avep6a 22 

many, n-oXus 18 

many things, ttoXXo 14 

market, place, dyopd 28 

marriage, ydjiog 11 



Mary, Mapid/i, Mapia 15 

master, Scarrorrjs 6 ; ejruTTdrtjs 

meat, rpncjiri 21 

mercy, I have, f'Xcco) 12 

middle, /jua-ot 29 

minister, Siukovos 12 

miracle, a-rj^eiov 4 ; ripas 17 

money, dpyipiov 4 ; ra p^/jij/iara 

month, ftiji/ 16 

more, //taXXoi' 18 

Moses, MmiJcr^s 19 

mother, fiijrijp 17 

mountain, opos 18 

mouth, cTTopa 18 

much, TToXur 18 

I multiply, irXrjdvva 26 

multitude, o;(Xos 9 

I must, see necessary 

mystery, p-vo-TTipiov 27 

name, ovop,a 18 
narrow, o-Tti'dy 20 
nation, yci/oj 17 
near, e'yyiJs 20 
necessary, it is, 8ei 11 
neighbour, 6 nXria-iov 26 
net, S/Kruov 20 



new 



', veos 21 ; KOti/ds 28 
t, vii 16 



night, vv§ 16 
no more, /xijkeVi 18 
no one, /«;8«y, ouSf is 
not, oi 6; /i^ 10 
nourishment, rpoc^ij 
now, i/Cw 21 



0, a 14 

I obey, vwaKoiai 11 

I observe, tij/je'cb 2 

I offend, o-icai/SaXifa) 13 

old, TToXatdr 21 

on, Ejri 20 

on account of, Sid with ace. 9 

one, fls, uia, iv 18 

one another, dXXijXour 31 

one's own, i8toi 7 

I open, dvolya 12 



ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY 



1&7 



other, eVfpos 7 
I ought, o0ciXa) 15 
out of, ex, e^ 6 
outside, t|o) 26 
I owe, d(j)ei\aj 15 

parable, napa^oKr) 5 

paralytic, TrapaXvriKos 15 ; napa- 

\e\vfifvos 28 
pareuts, oi yovels 18 
I pass by, napdya 19 
patience, virofiov-q 31 
Paul, navXof 11 
pay, jiur66s 25 
peace, elpfjvri 5 
people, Xadf 3 

I perceive, KaToKaji^avopm 21 
I permit, t'dca 22 
I persuade, neidai 8 
Peter, airpos 16 
Pharisee, iapia-aios 15 
Philip, iiXHTTrof 26 
I place, ri'67;/ai 28 
I place beside, napaTiSrjiu 28 
place, TOTTOf 9 
poor, 7rT<ox6s 11 
possible, SuvaTos 15 

?ower, i^ovaia 5 ; Siva/us 20 
praise, cuXoyem 12 
I pray, Trpoo-cuxoF"' ^^ 
I preach, Kr)pi<T<ra> 8 
I preach the Gospel, evayyeXi^ofiai 

10 
I present, naplimifu 29 
I am present, rrapayivoiiai, 19 
priest, tf/jEiJs 18 
prison, ^uXoK^ 27 
prisoner, he<rp,uts 26 
I proclaim, KTjpva-a-ia 8 
promise, inayyiKia 5 
proof, TeKpriptov 29 
I prophesy, irpo(j)TiTeia> 12 
prophet, irpo(j>TiTrjs 6 
publican, reXai/iji 9 
I pursue, SttoKo) 12 
I put on, cVSuo) 12 



I put upon, fni^dWa 21 
quickly, raxfas 13 



race, ■ytvor 17 ; 
I raise, iyelpm 
29 



Wvos 18 
1 ; avi(m)pi 29 ; 
enaipa) 29 
I read, dvayiyvunrKtii 8 
I make ready, kroipA^m 13 
reason, Xdyof 3 

I receive, Xa/i^avo) 1 ; Sexopai 10 
1 rejoice, x''ip'i> 8 ; ayoXXido) 22 
I release, diroKia 8 
I remain, pJua 1 ; npoiTKapTepiw 20 
remission, a(j>f(ns 17 
remove, d^tim^jui 29 
rent, a-xi(Tp.a 21 
I repent, peravoiai 29 
repentance, perdvoia 17 
the rest, oj XotTroi 21 
resurrection, aKdoxao-ts 18 
I reveal, aTroicaXuTrrw 13 
reward, p.ur66s 25 
on the right hand, Sepias 28 
righteousness, SiKoioa-vvij 5 
I rise, avltTTapai 29 
river, 7roTa;idr 13 
robber, Xijorijr 9 
rock, TreVpa 20 ' 
I rouse, iyeipa 1 
I rule, ap;((» 12 
ruler, apxav 16 

Sabbath, trd^/SaToi' 4 
sacrifice, Bva-ia 26 
I keep safe, Trjpea 2 
I said, fijrov 14 
saint, aytos 7, see p. 20 
I salt, dXi'fo) 25 
salt, okas sis 
Samaria, Sap.dpeia 11 
sanctify, dytdfo) 13 
Satan, SaravSy 19 
save, <rd>^a) 1 
saviour, trarfip 16 
I saw, elSov 14 
I say, \4ya 1 

13—3 



198 



ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY 



saying, p^^a 18 

I scatter abroad, Siaa-neipa 19 

scribe, ypaiifiaTeis 17 

scriptures, ypaxjtai 5 

sea, BoKaaira 6 

season, Kcupos 15 

I see, ^Xen-o) 1 ; 6paa> 22 

seed, inrepp.a 18 

I seek, Cv^ea 2 

I sell, dnoBiSotiai 27 

I send, aTroffTeXXo) 1 ; Trip.na> 8 

sentence, xpi'/ia 18 

I separate, a<t>iaTrip.i 29 

servant, SiaKovos 12 

I serve, StaKovea 12 

I set aside, dBeHm 24 

I set before, jrapaTidrnxi 28 

I set in order, Tda-a-a> 13 

I set up, KaOia-Trjiii 29 

seven, eTrra 23 

sheep, npo^arov 4 

shepherd, Trot/x^v 16 

I shout, /Sodo) 22 

I show, <j)alv<M) 15 ; Seiswiii 30 

shrine, vadi 21 

sick, a(r6evr)s 18 

I am sick, do-dcveo) 28 

sign, (Trj/ieiov 4 

I am silent, cruuTrdiu 25 

silver, dpyvpiov 4 ; Spyvpos 26 

Simon, Si'/imw 19 

I sin, dfiaprdvia 14 

sin, &naprr'ia 5 

sinner, dpaprcoKos 10 

slave, SoiXor 3 

I sleep, Kot/idoi 23 

soldier, o-TpariaTris 15 

Solomon, SoXo/xSv 21 

son, «idr 8 

soon, rapff'mf 13 

soul, yjfvxv 5 

sound, ^(Bvi/ 5 

I sow, a-jrelpa 15 

I speak, XaXco) 2 

I speak with, trvvXoKea 19 

spirit, Trvevjia 17 



I spoke, ein-ov 14 

I cause to stand, icrTr)p.i 29 

I cause to stand away, d<j>iaTripii 29 

I stand away, dKJtiaTripj. 29 

I cause to stand up, dvla-TTjfu 29 

I stand up, dviaraiJiai 29 

star, d(rri)p 16 

I steal, KXeVra) 23 

I stone, Xidd^d), KoraXtdd^o) 26 

stone, Xi'tfos 9 

strong, la-xvpos 21 

stumble, I cause to, trKav8a\i(o> 13 

I suffer, irda-x'^ 14 

I suffered, en-oBov 14 

I summon, npoa-KoKeui 31 

I surname, eirucoKca 21 

I surpass, ncpitrtrtva) 25 

surpassing, irepia-a-os 26 

sword, iid}(aipa 15 

synagogue, avvayayrj 5 

I take, Xa^/Sdi/w 1 

I take counsel with, o-UK/SouXeuo- 

/lai 21 
I take hold of, Kparea 20 
I take up, or away, alpm 15 
I take with, iTapaKap,^dva> 20 
I tarry, /leXXu 21 
I taste, yfvop.ai 25 
taxgatherer, reXoivris 9 
I teach, SiSdo-Km 8 
teacher, SiSdo-KoXof 9 
teaching, RiSaxv 20 
I tear, tnrapda(r<o 19 
temple, itpdi/ 4 
tempt, neipd^ai 11 
temptation, irtipaapAs 23 
than, ^ 18 

I thank, eixapia-rda 30 
that, €Kfivos 8 
then, TOTf 30 
there, fK« 11 
therefore, ouv 6 
I think, Ko/ii'^o) 25 ; (jtpovew 31 
this, oJtos 8 
thou, (TV 11 



ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY 



199 



three, rptis 16 ; rpia 21 

thrice, rpts 26 

throne, 6p6vos 9 

through, Sid with Gen. 9 

I throw, /3aXX(o 1 ; plnrai 21 

I throw round (of a net), ap.<\>i- 

/SaXXa 19 
time, )(p6vos 9 ; Kmpos 15 
to (motion to), els 6 ; irpos 9 
to-morrow, r/ aSpwv 25 

1 toil, KOTTUlflB 20 

I told, e'jToi' 14 

tomb, p,vr]fielov 20 

tongue, y\S)tr<Ta 6 

tooth, oSovf 16 

I touch, aTTTopai 10 

towards, npos 9 

tradition, napaboais 24 

trample on, TroTeoi 31 

transgression, irapairrmpa 30 

tree, ShSpov 4 

tribe, 611X17 15 

true, aXridris 18 

truly, dX>)flfiJ9 21 

trumpet, a-dXiriy^ 16 

truth, aX^dcm 5 

two, Suo 20 

unclean, oKadapros 19 
I understand, awlripi 30 
until, 60): 15 

village, Kffl/ui; 15 
vineyard, d/in-cXuv 16 
virgin, napSivos 3 
vision, opajua 25 
voice, ^tavTi 5 

I walk about, ntpmaria 8 
I wash away, awoKova 21 
watch, <l>v\aKJi 27 
water, uSmp 17 
way, dSdf 3 

I go my way, oboiiropia 21 
we, jjpeis 11 
weak, dtrSevris 18 



I am weak, da6fv4a 28 

well, fS 24 

I went, ^\6ov 14 

what kind ? ttoIos 27 

when, ore 15 

where, ttoC 22 

while, e<os 15 

who, which, Ss, ^, o, 10; Sime 25 

who? what? Ti'r, Ti 20 

whole (sound), iyirjs 18 

whole (complete), SXos 20 

wicked, jrovijpdi 7 

wickedness, dSixia 10 ; dvopia 26 

widow, xw" ^^ 

wife, ■yuv^ 17 

will, de\ripa 17 

I am willing, diXa 11 

wind, n-vfC^a 17 

wine, olvos 14 

wisdom, cro<l)ia 5 

wise, (To(l)6s 12 

I wish, ^ovXojuai, dcXo) 11 

with (together with), o-uv 6 ; perd 

with Gen. 9 
withered, $tip6s 29 
witness, pdprvs 29 
1 bear witness, paprvpia 2 
woman, yuv^ 17 
I wonder at, davpd^a 13 ; dap^eo- 

pai 26 
wonder, Wpar 17 
word, Xdyoff 3 ; p^pa 18 
I work, epyd^opai 10 
work, epyov 4 
workman, epydnjs 9 
world, KOfr/xof 3 ; rj oiKovpevrj 29 
I worship, wpotrKvvia 22 
I write, ypd(j>a> 1 
writing, ypaijjrj 5 

year, exos 17 
you, i^els 11 
young, vfos 21 
young child, nmhiov 4 
young man, veavias 6 

Zacharias, Zaxapiof 20 



GEEEK INDEX 



The numbers refer to the Vocahulariei 



'Ayados 7 
ayaWidco 22 
dyairda 22 
dydnT} 5 
dyanrjTos 1 
ayyeXos 3 
dyiaf 01 13 
ayws 7 
dyopd 28 
dyopd^d) 13 
dypos 10 
Syo) 8 
ddfX(^os 3 
adtKco} 12 
ddtKLa 10 
dSuvoTor 15 
ddereo) 24 
AiyuTTTOff 15 
a£/ia 17 
aipa 15 
airc'o) 2 
alav 16 
aiiui'ior 7 
(iKddaproc 19 
aKoKovdeo) 30 
aKovo} 1 
S\as 25 

dXcKTfOp 16 

dX^deia 5 
dXtjBrjS 18 
dXijdm; 21 
dXifffl 25 
dXXd 6 
dXX^Xour 31 
ijiaprdva 14 
dfiaprria 5 



d/iapra)Xw 10 
apvos 14 
d/ijTfXttii' 16 
d/t(^(j3dXXQ) 19 
dyaycyi/axTKO) 8 
'Avawias 19 
dvdo'raa'tff 18 
dvaxapito 20 
"AvSpear 19 
di/Tjp 17 
avBpatTTOS 3 
dviarrjfii 29 
"Avvas 20 
avoiyto 12 
di'o^/a 26 
(iTrayycXXo) 15 
aTrd-yo) 13 
dirapviopai 26 
dn-epxoiiai 10 
aTTO 6 

dTroSiSia/u 27 
diro6vrj(rKa 1 
djroKaXvTTTO) 13 
dnoKpivofiai 10 
dn'dK/)(0'£ff 20 
airoKTeivai 8 
d7roXc<rei 24 
dn-oXouca 21 
d7roXv6) 8 
dnoo'Trda 28 
dTTOcrrtXXm 1 
djrdffToXor 9 
airTop.ai 10 
dirmXcia 31 
dpyvpwu 4 
Spyvpos 26 



apviofiai 10 
apros 3 

dpxupfvs 18 
&p\oixai. 11 
apX^ ^^ 
3p)((ov 16 
d(r0€V€a} 28 
d(r0ev7js 18 
d<TTrip 16 
aCpiov 25 
a^TOS 8 
a<^ftTis 17 
d<l>irjp.L 30 
dtjlla-TTipj, 29 
af^ptav 18 
*A;^€X5a/id;^ 26 

Baivo) 14 
/SdXXcd 1 
/SoTTTifw 8 
^dirTurpa 17 
fiawniTTrjS 6 
^acriKela 5 
/SatriXfur 17 
/Saordfti) 13 
BriBXefp. 15 
jSt^Xioi/ 4 

^XcTTQ) 1 

/Soda) 22 
|3oX^ 28 
^ovXo^ai 1 1 

TaXiXai'a 19 
■yd/xor 1 1 
■ydp 6 



GREEK INDEX 



201 



ytavaa 22 
■yeVof 17 
yevofiai 25 

yv 5, 

yiyvirtTKa 14 
yivaxTKa 14 
yivofiat 21 
yXfflO'cra 6 
yi/owTTof 26 
yovevs 18 
■ydvu 17 
ypd^fjut 17 
ypajifiaTeis 17 
ypacjni 5 
ypd<f)<o 1 
■yvi/^ 17 

AaiSiS 18 
SaifiovLov 4 
Aavei'S 18 
8e 6 
get 11 

8eLKVVp.l 30 

hivhpov 4 
Se^idf 28 
heojuu 11 
hi(Tp.ios 26 
fiecTTrdrT/ff 6 
bi)(opai 10 
ac'«> 24 
Sia 9 

Sid^oXos 11 
diaKoi'60> 12 

SlOKOI/Of 12 

SioKoyi^ofiai 31 
duur^eipa 19 
diSacKOXof 9 
SiSao'Ka) 8 
SiSax"? 20 
Si8a.pt 27 
SifpXOfiai 10 
SiKaios 7 
StKa[0(rwi; 5 
StKatdu 22 
8Utvov 20 
StdiKCtf 12 



8d|a 6 
8o|af(o 8 
doOXoff 3 
Svvafiat 11 
Siva/us 20 
Swaroff 15 
8^0 20 

'Eara 22 
eyyi^a 13 
iyyvs 20 
eyeipa 1 
eyivero 21 
eyo) 11 
^^Kos 18 
«' 18 
eiSoi' 14 
flKmv 16 
etirov 14 
elprjvrj 5 
elf 6 
efr 18 
eicrayw' 23. 
eMpxoiiai 19 
fltTrropevofiat 28 
el(T<j)4p(o 28 
e's 6 

e'it/3aXX<u 8 
eKei 11 
eKeii'Off 8 
eKuXtjaia 5 
eKKdn-TO) 13 
eVXeyo/iOt 21 
eK7rXi7(r(roftat 20 
inTTopeiofiai 26 
cK^eiya 26 
eXeeo} 12 
i\ev6epos 11 
cXkuo) 29 
'EXX»;i' 23 
e'XTTi'fo) 13 
e'Xm's 16 
tfiTrpoadev 29 
eV 6 

fvSva 12 



eVdaSe 25 

c'vreXXo) 29 

evToXr) 5 

evaniov 28 

i^epxojuu 19 

e^eari 11 

e|oSor 22 

c^ovala 5 

e|o> 26 
nayyekia 5 

enaBov 14 
iralpui 29 
nipxojiai 20 

eVeptBrdcB 31 

eVi 20 
TTi^dKXa 21 
IT ly i,yvai(TK(i> 23 
7rLdvp.e(o 20 
WiKoXeo) 21 
7r(Xa/i/3ava} 29 
wiarTOTr]! 20 
Wiffuva-yo) 31 

tTrrd 23 

ipya^ofiai. 10 

fpydrrj! 9 

epyov 4 

eprfpios 3 

fpXopMi 10 

epatrdco 22 

eadica 1 

eaxoTos 7 

€(J")(pV 14 

erepoE 7 
eTOtfid^a 13 
eroff 17 
e3 24 

eiiayyeXl^ofioL 10 
euayyeXtov 4 
fvBfas 30 
eidus 9 
fuXoyeo) 12 
fvpltTKto 1 
cixaptarea 30 
e^ayov 14 
i^Bpos 12 
ex<o 1 



202 


GREEK INDEX 




€as 15 


lo-Yupor 21 
j'x^fr o 17 


KVpiOS 3 




KVOIV 17 


Zaxapias 20 


'Icaavj/r 8 


Kajp,rj 15 


(da, 22 


'I<B0-1J(/) 15 


KlOi^df 17 


flJTCO) 2 






ffflij 5 


Kaflapifm 13 


Ad^apos 23 




KaBiarrifiL 29 


XaXc'oi 2 


•H 18 


Ka^cof 23 


\appdva 1 


fiyefiav 16 


Kat 3 


Xa/iwas 16 


■HX€mr 19 


Kai.d(j)as 20 


Xadf 3 


5X5oi/ 14 


Kawor 28 


XeyiB 1 


^/i«r 11 


Kaipos 15 


XcTTpdff 13 


TIIMipa 5 


Kal(rap 27 


XjoT^r 9 


rjveyKOv 14 


Kaiaapeia 26 


Xiflafm 26 


'Hp<oSijs 15 


Kai&> 28 


Xi'tfos 9 




KOKOy 7 


Xdyor 3 


SoXatra'a 6 


KaXcQ) 2 


Xotn-ds 21 


daju^EO/iai 26 


KaXoff 11 


Ai88a 20 


dai/aro; 3 


KapSla 5 


Xu;(i'os 29 
\va 9 


Bapa-eia 30 


KapiTos 9 


6avpA^e> 13 


Kara 20 




deXij^a 17 


KaraKpiva 15 


Ma-ySaXiji'^ 23 


de'Xu 11 


KaraXa/i^avo) 21 


fiaBryrffS 6 


flfdr 3 ^ 


KaraXt^afffl 26 


/loXXov 18 


Bcpaireia 11 


KaT-aXciVti) 14 


p,av6dva> 14 


Beapea 2 


KaraXvo) 25 


Mapia 15 


V^ 17 


KOTCuXo-yea) 28 


Mapidp, 15 


Opovos 9 


(coToiKe'ta 12 


fjiapTvpiat 2 


Bvydrrip 17 


KcXcvcD 11 


/idprvs 29 


dupa 16 


KE(/>aX^ 5 


fjLa\aipa 15 


duo-i'a 26 


Kfipva-a-o) 8 


fiiyas 18 




xXam 28 


jueXXb) 21 


'la(t<B|3os 26 


leXeV™ 23 


^eV 11 


Idofxai 22 


kXiV); 15 


fjidva 1 


?8tos 7 


Koip.dat 23 


pepi^ai 29 


I'Sou 21 


K 0(1/ do) 23 


p.eptp,vdto 25 


lepevs 18 


KOTTia^O) 20 


p,eiTos 29 


ifpow 4 


Kopv^Xtof 15 


jutTti 9 


'lepova-oKriii 9 


K6trp,os 3 


peravofo) 29 


'Iijo-oCj 8 


Kpd^a 8 


/icrdvoia 17 


i/xuriov 4 


uparia .20 


A"7 10 


'loTrjri; 20 


Kpt/xa 18 


jiiijSei's 18 


'lopbdv7]s 11 


lept'vci) 1 


llrJKCTl 18 


'lovSaiof 8 


Kpiais 18 


fi^i- 16 


'lirpa^X 10 


KpiTr/s 9 


/i^njp 17 


la-Ttipi 29 


KpUTTTO) 13 


^la 18 



GREEK INDEX 



203 



lUKpos 21 
iu<r66s 25 
fivTjiiciov 20 
juxrrqpwv 27 
WiovaTJs 19 

Naor 21 
veavias 6 
vfKpos 18 
ve'or 21 
vc^cXi; 20 
' vr](TTev(i) 31 
vo\),i^a> 25 
vdfioc 3 
vv\i<^ios 16 
viV, ruvt 21 
vu^ 16 

Sijpof 29 

'OdotTTo^eo) 21 
odoff 3 
o8ovs 16 
oiba 30 
oiKi'a 11 
oiKoSeaffonjr 9 
-oiKofio/xco) 10 

OtKOff 3 

olKovfievr] 29 
oivos 14 
oXor 20 
oiioios 26 
ojuoeoo) 29 
opoKayita 11 
ovofia 18 
oiriVffl 15 
opafia 25 
6pam 22 
cipof 18 
Of 10 
oiroc 20 

OCTTIE 25 
ore 15 
Sn 12 
ou 6 
oiBeis 18 



GUI' 6 

oipdvios 30 
ovpavos 9 
our 17 
oSrof 8 
■ ou;^t 21 
otpciKiTris 30 
oijjflXrjua 30 
6(j>e[\a> 15 
6<l)da\fi6s 9 
S;^Xoff 9 

IlaeSiov 4 
Tratff 16 
waXator 21 
iravra 15 
TravTaxoC 29 
TrdiTore 30 
Trapa 15 
napa^oKr] 5 
jrapayyAXo) 11 
irapaylyvopm 19 
irapaya 19 
wapahiSa>p,i 27 
napdboais 24 
TrapaKaXeo) 2 
irapaXap^dva 20 
TrapdKeXvfievos 28 
TrapaXvrtKo; 15 
wapdnTtofia 30 
irapaTLdrjpL 28 
irapBfVos 3 
TTopicmj/it 29 
Trar 18 
iracp^o) 14 
n-aTeeo 31 
TraTrjp 17 
IlaOXos 11 
iravopm 29 
neido) 8 
TTCtpafo) 11 
TreipaiTfios 23 
Tre/xTTO) 8 
7rfi'raKia';^iXioe 19 
n-fpi/SaXXco 25 



irepiTTorfO) 8 



nepttro'eva 25 
nepitra-os 26 
irerpa 20 
IleVpos 16 
TTtrui 14 

TTITTTO) 14 

TTtiTTeiJa) 1 
irians 18 
■miTTos 7 
7rXai/ao/zat 30 
irXrjdvvaj 26 
TrXfipoa 22 

TtXi/O'IOI' 26 

TrXoIov 4 
TTuevjia 17 

TTOlCb) 2 
TTOip.TJV 16 

rroios 27 

TToXtS 17 

jroXXa 14 
ffoXus 18 
TTOvrjpos 7 
TTopevofiai 10 
jroTa/ids 13 
norrf)pwv 15 
TTOC 22 
TTOUff 17 

irpda-aai 13 

TTpeTTOV 30 

jrpeiT^VTfpos 9 
TrptV 26 
wpd 6 

TTpO^aTOV 4 

npofiepLfivdoi 27 
Trpds 9 

npo(Tfpxopai 20 
Trpotrev^opui 21 
irpotre^o} 26 
TrpocKaXcco 31 
TTpoiTKapTfpia) 20 
irpoo'KvveQ} 22 
TrpotrtBTTOT' 4 
wpo(j)rirfva> 12 
•nrpo<f)rjTrjs 6 
irpaTos 7 

TTTW^^dff 11 



204 



GREEK INDEX 



nvvOdvoiiai 22 
irvp 17 
n&s 19 

'Vrjfia 18 
p'nrTO) 21 

Sd^fiarov 4 
irdXniy^ 16 
Sa/xapeia 11 
(rapl 16 
Saravar 19 
aijfieiov 4 
Si/uov 19 
fncoTrdai 25 
anavdaKL^o} 13 

(TKOTOS 18 

SoXojLia)v 21 
(ro<pia 5 
croipos 12 
CTrapacrira) 19 
aTreipta 15 
(Twepfia 18 

(TTOUpOS 15 

oraupdo) 22 
OTci/dff 20 
oTo^a 18 
orparnoTjjf 15 
(TV 11 
(TVV 6 

erwayo) 8 
<Tvvayaryr) 5 
(Tvv^ovKevoiiai 21 
(rvvedpiav 20 
<Twetr6ia> 26 
(TVV^rjTea) 26 
irvvhjfu 30 
(TVvXaXeco 19 
trvpu 26 



(rxi(riia 21 

0*0)^0) 1 

(rS)[ia 18 
crtoTrjp 16 

TaTreiKoto 22 
rafffro) 13 
Ta^eas 13 
TCKiirjpiov 29 

TCKVOV 4 

reXtui/T/s 9 
Tepas 17 
TecTfrapdKovrd 19 
Tijpia 2 
Ti(9i;/i4 28 
t'lkt(o 14 
Ti/i^ 28 
7-ir 20 
Tif 20 

TOTTOff 9 

roTe 30 
Tpels 16 
Tpta 21 
rpi's 26 
Tpo<pri 21 
Tu<^Xdj 11 

'Y-yiijr 18 
udo)/} 17 
utdy 8 

U/i€lJ 11 

UTrd'ya) 8 
un'aKOva) 11 
iiTre'p 21 
vurd 9 

VirORpiTT)! 9 
V1T0p.0VT] 31 

{Jorepoff 29 
{ii^doi 22 



^aiva 15 
<j>avep6a) 22 
^apco'aco? 15 
^e/3(o 8 
<ji€vya) 14 

*^(7T0J 26 

(j>6eipa> 15 
^tXeo) 2 

ilXtJTTTOJ 26 

^0|3eo/xa( 19 
^djSos 19 
<l)povea) 31 
<jiv\aKr] 27 
(j>v\a^ 16 
^uXdo'cro) 13 
^uXt) 15 
(j}a>V€(D 16 

<j)(0V7] 5 

^£s 17 

"Kalpa 8 
^apa 5 
xdpis 16 
xWp 17 

;^IT(M1' 1 6 
Xpij/iO 19 
Xpovos 9 
Xpva-os 26 
Xutplov 27 

'i'fuSijs 29 

'Q 14 
JS( 11 
upa 5 
co: 15 



CAMBBIDSE ; PBINIED BY JOHN OLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS